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112.3 Culture

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Victoria Mowat

on 8 December 2016

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Transcript of 112.3 Culture

112.3 Culture
Chapter 3 Outline:
Chapter 3 Terms to Study:
Norms & Sanctions
3.3 Culture as Innovation:
Folkways - Mores ("Morays") - Taboos
Subculture & Counterculture
Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism
3.5 Theoretical Perspectives on Culture
Symbolic Interactionism
Critical Sociology
What is one way you express your culture?
Material Culture
Nonmaterial Culture
Estimates suggest there are currently 7,105 languages in use around the world.
3.1 What Is Culture?
3.2 Elements of Culture
3.3 Culture as Innovation
3.4 Culture as Restriction
3.5 Theoretical Perspectives on Culture
"Double-double, please."
Ideal vs. Real Culture
Culturally defined rules for appropriate social behaviour
Norm-based rewards or punishments
Pop Culture, Subculture, Global Culture
= a type of subculture that explicitly reject the larger culture's norms and values (runs counter to society's norms).
= judging another culture based on how it compares to your own.

Cultural imperialism
= the deliberate imposition of one's own cultural values on another culture.

Culture shock
= disorientation or frustration encountered when confronted with all the differences of a new culture.

Cultural relativism
= assessing a culture by its own standards.
Youtube: "The Japanese Love Industry"
- The functions of culture
- Provides solidarity and togetherness
- How different cultural groups interact with one another
- Dominant group's cultural attitudes toward subordinate groups serve as rationale/justification
How can we understand Cult behaviour in terms of culture?
Youtube: "Language and Thought: The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis"
- Culture as interaction
- Created and recreated (fluid)
- E.g. clothing fashions
What is culture?
Why should we strive for cultural relativism?
How can we understand subcultures?
UP NEXT - Chapter 5: Socialization
But first, track your learning...
Types of Norms:
Track your learning...
1. What happened?

2. How did you react?

3. What did you learn?

4. How will you applying this information in the future? What will you do the same or differently?
3.1 What Is Culture?
Behaviours are learned
Culture and Biology
Biological determinism
= human behaviour is determined by biological mechanisms (e.g. genetics, intuition, evolution).

= provides biological explanations for the evolution of human behaviour and social organization.
*Misguided from a sociological perspective

= a social movement that sought to improve the human "stock" through selective breeding and sterilization.
Cultural Universals
= Patterns or traits that are globally common to all societies.

E.g. the family
Who do you picture living under this roof?
3.2 Elements of Culture
Values & Beliefs
= what is true, good, just, or beautiful.

= the tenets or convictions that people hold to be true, based on underlying values.

Ideal culture
= the standards society would like to embrace and live up to.

Real culture
= the way society actually is.
Symbols & Language
= gestures, signs, objects, signals, and words

= a symbolic system through which people communicate and through which culture is transmitted.
New objects, ideas, or ways of being introduced to culture for the first time.
High Culture & Popular Culture
High culture
= characterized by formal complexity, eternal values, or intrinsic authenticity (elites use it to maintain status and power).

Popular culture
= the pattern of cultural experiences that exist in mainstream society.

Postmodern culture
= The distinction btw high and pop culture begins to break down and we find "mash-ups" of the two. E.g. Academic analyses of rock music; pop culture objects transformed into 'high art.'
Global Culture
= the integration of international trade and finance markets.

= the spread of material and nonmaterial culture from one culture to another.
3.4 Culture as Restriction:
Rationalization and Commodification
= the general tendency of modern institutions and most areas of life to be transformed by the application of instrumental reason - choosing the most efficient means to achieve defined goals - and the overcoming of 'magical' thinking.

Iron cage
= Max Weber's metaphor for the modern condition of life circumscribed by the demand for maximum efficiency.
The Commodity, Commodification, and Consumerism as a Way of Life
= an object, service, or a "good" that has been produced for sale on the market.

= the process through which objects, services, or goods are increasingly turned into commodities, so they become defined more in terms of their marketability and profitability than by their intrinsic characteristics.
Karl Marx said this led to
commodity fetishism

= the way in which we define ourselves in terms of the commodities we purchase.
E.g. The hockey game brings us together, helps us get exercise
Youtube: "Surviving Eugenics - official trailer (2015)"
Discussion Questions:
1. How can we understand these terms (ethnocentrism, cultural imperialism, culture shock, cultural relativism) in the context of this video?

2. How can these terms guide us in developing a sociological approach to this topic?

3. As sociologists, what perspective should we be striving for?
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
= based on the idea that people experience their world through their language (and understand the world through the culture embedded in their language).
Dominant Culture
How can we understand Hipsters in terms of culture?
Rationalization (Max Weber)
Weekly Calendar
Youtube: "Welcome to the 'Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism' run amok"
Culture is the site of two opposing tendencies
E.g. Voting rights in Canada
culture - society - ethnosphere - biological determinism - sociobiology - eugenics - cultural universals - ethnocentrism - cultural imperialism - culture shock - cultural relativism - rationalization - multiculturalism - values - beliefs - ideal culture - real culture - sanctions - social control - norms - formal norms - informal norms - mores - folkways - taboos - symbols - language - Sapir-Whorf hypothesis - material culture - nonmaterial culture - innovations - high culture - popular culture - postmodern culture - subculture - countercultures - globalization - diffusion - rationalization - iron cage - commodity - commodification - commodity fetishism - consumerism
androcentricism - cultural capital - culture lag - detournement - diaspora - geneticism - hybridity - interculturalism - invention - socioeconomic formation
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