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Review Prezi

Organic Molecules
by

Leah Ko

on 25 April 2011

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Transcript of Review Prezi

Organic Molecules Isomers isomers - compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structures and hence different properties
structural isomers - compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms
geometric isomers - compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the spatial arrangements of their atoms
enantiomers - molecules that are mirror images of each other Leah Ko Functional Groups Hydroxyl Group: (–OH); alcohols; specific names usually end in -ol (ex: ethanol); when a hydrogen atom is bonded to an oxygen atom that is bonded to a carbon skeleton of the organic molecule; polar due to the electronegativity of the oxygen atom; water molecules are attracted to hydroxyl groups contributing to the ability for organic compounds containing hydroxyl groups to dissolve
Carbonyl Group: (C=O); consists of a carbon atom joined to an oxygen atom by a double bond; compound called an aldehyde if bonded on the end of a carbon skeleton, if not the compound is called a ketone
Carboxyl Group: (–COOH); carboxylic acids or organic acids; when an oxygen atom is double-bonded to a carbon atom that is also bonded to a hydroxyl group; acidic properties caused by the covalent bond between oxygen and hydrogen which is so polar that hydrogen tends to dissociate reversibly from the molecule as an ion
Amino Group: (–NH2); consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and to the carbon skeleton; amines; the molecular building blocks of proteins
Sulfhydryl Group: (–SH); consists of a sulfur atom bonded to an atom of hydrogen; resembles a hydroxyl group in shape; compounds containing sulfhydryl groups are called thiols
Phosphate Group: (–OPO); have a phosphate ion covalently attached by one of its oxygen atoms to the carbon skeleton; transfer energy between organic molecules Polymers Polymer - a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds
Monomers - the repeating units that serve as building blocks of a polymer
Condensation Reaction - a reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a small molecule, usually water; also called dehydration reaction
Hydrolysis - a chemical process that lyses, or splits, molecules by the addition of water Carbohydrates include sugars and their polymers
Monosaccharides - single/simple sugars; major nutrients for cells
Disaccharides - double sugars; two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage (a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction)
Polysaccharides - polymers of many sugars; macromolecules; some serve as storage material, hydrolyzed as needed to provide sugar for cells
Starch - a storage polysaccharide of plants; polymer consisting entirely of glucose monomers
Glycogen - a polymer of glucose that is like amylopectin but more extensively branched
Cellulose - a structural polysaccharide that is a major component of the tough walls that enclose plant cells
Chitin - a structural polysaccharide used by arthropods to build their exoskeletons Lipids grouped together because they share one important trait: they have little or no affinity for water
Fat - constructed from two kinds of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty acids; serves a purpose in energy storage, insulation, and cushioning organs
Glycerol - an alcohol with three carbons, each bearing a hydroxyl group
Fatty Acid - has a long carbon skeleton with a carboxyl group at one end
Triacylglycerol - three fatty acids ("tails") linked to one glycerol molecule ("head")
Saturated fatty acid - fatty acid saturated with hydrogen atoms
Unsaturated fatty acid - fatty acid that has one or more double bonds, formed by the removal of hydrogen atoms from the carbon skeleton
Phospholipids - have only two fatty acid tails rather than three; ambivalent behavior toward water; hydrophobic tails and hydrophilic head; major components of cell membranes
Micelle - a cluster of phospholipids with phosphate heads on the outside in contact with the water and hydrocarbon tails restricted to the water-free interior of the micelle
Steroids - lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings
Cholesterol - a common component of animal cell membranes and a precursor from which other steroids are synthesized consists of one or more polypeptides folded or coiled into specific conformations
used for structural support, storage, transport of other substances, signaling from one part of the organism to another, movement, and defense against foreign substances
as enzymes, proteins regulate metabolism by selectively accelerating chemical reactions in the cell
polypeptides - polymers of amino acids
amino acids - organic molecules possessing both carboxyl and amino groups
peptide bond - a covalent bond formed when two amino acids are positioned so that the carboxyl group of one is adjacent to the amino group of the other and an enzyme causes them to join by catalyzing a dehydration reaction
Primary structure - a unique sequence of amino acids
Secondary structure - the localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between peptide linkages
alpha helix - a spiral shape constituting one form of the secondary structure of proteins arising from a specific hydrogen bonding structure
beta pleated sheet - one form of the secondary structure of proteins in which the polypeptide chain folds back and forth, or where two regions of the chain lie parallel to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds
Tertiary structure - irregular contortions of a protein molecule due to interactions of side chains involved in hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bridges
Quaternary structure - the overall protein structure that results from the aggregationof these polypeptide subunits
denaturation - when a protein may unravel and lose its native conformation due to pH, salt concentration, temperature, or other aspects of its environment are altered
chaperonins - protein molecules that assist the proper folding of other proteins
X-ray crystallography - depends on the diffraction of an X-ray beam by the individual atoms in a crystal of the protein Proteins Nucleic Acids Genes consist of DNA, which is a polymer belonging to the class of compounds known as nucleic acids
Deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) - provides directions for its own replication; directs RNA synthesis and, through RNA, controls protein synthesis; genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents; not directly involved in running the operations of the cell
Ribonucleic acids (RNA) - each gene along the length of a DNA molecule directs the synthesis of a type of RNA called messenger RNA (mRNA)
Nucleotides - monomers of a nucleic acid; composed of a nitrogenous base, a pentose, and a phosphate group
Pyrimidine - six-membered ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms; cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U)
Purine - six-membered ring fused to a five-membered ring; adenine (A) and guanine (G)
The pentose connected to the nitrogenous base in RNA is ribose and deoxyribose in DNA
Polynucleotide - nucleotides are joined by covalent bonds called phosphodiester linkages between the phosphate of one nucleotide and the sugar of the next
DNA molecules have two nucleotides that spiral around an imaginary axis to form a double helix http://www.worsleyschool.net/science/files/sugar/sugarmolecule2.gif http://avonapbio.pbworks.com/f/phospholipid_structure.jpg http://www.gbiosciences.com/EducationalUploads/EducationalProductsImages/mediumimages/Protein%20structure.jpg http://www.dna-sequencing-service.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/dna-structure.gif
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