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Copy of Whaling
Transcript of Copy of Whaling
Yanina Navas One big WHALE of a Problem The earliest archaeological record of whaling is found in South Korea, where carved drawings dating back to 6,000 BC show that Stone Age people hunted whales using boats and spears.
16th and 17th century: Atlantic arctic fishery commences.Whaling industry emerged due to an increase in the necessity of goods and advances in technology The History of Whaling The Global Issue of Whaling What is Whaling? Whaling is the practice or industry of hunting and killing whales for their meat, oil, or whalebone. Whaling is also known as the hunting and killing of whales for commercial, recreational or scientific purposes. More on the history Why is whaling a global issue Over the years commercial whaling has depleted a number of whales. Whales are being over hunted and can't produce fast enough to keep up with the demands of people. The declining population of whales is effecting the marine life food chain, therefore altering the ecosystem.
Whaling effects everyone because of the impact that it is having on the sea which is why whaling is a global problem, not to mention the cruelty of the way they are kill. North American Laws on Whaling (CFA) Canadian Fisheries Act & (MMPA) Marine Mammal Protection Act (U.S)
Prohibits any disturbance of whales and requires permits for anyone with a vessel sightseeing whales
(SARA) Species at Risk Act & (ESA) Endangered Species Act (U.S)
Once a species is listed under the Species at Risk Act or Endangered species Act, it becomes illegal to kill, harm, harass, capture or take an individual of a listed species. 18th and 19th century:
Became a highly competitive business
The demand for whale oil seriously depletes certain species of whale, and modern whaling techniques emerge. In the early years of whale fishery, bodies were towed to shore where each nation had a factory. When petroleum was discovered at the end of the 19th century, kerosene began to replace whale oil as fuel for lamps.
The concept of whale harvesting began to grow as well as the introduction of factory ships which could be used to hunt, capture and transport whales much more effectively.
50,000 whales were being killed annually.
80 per cent of the great whale species are thought to be on the verge of extinction.
The International Whaling Commission (IWC) is set up by 15 whaling nations to manage whale stocks. 1986:
The International Whaling Commission banned the practice of commercial whaling in certain countries to try to give stocks of whale time to recover and hopefully rebuild their population
Many whale species still remain in existence today due to the banning of commercial whaling in most parts of the world.
Some countries have adopted their own policies for policing the hunting of whales and limit which species of whale can be hunted and how many of that species can be caught yearly. International Laws Concerning Whaling (IWC) International Whaling Commission is a voluntary international organization not backed up by any treaty but followed by almost all countries except:
Canada Foundations and Organizations Pacific Whale
Foundation Founded in 1980, Pacific Whale Foudation is a nonprofit organization advocating to save whales from extinction.
Mission: marine research, advocacy, educating people about whales and protecting whales and their ocean habitat.
To accomplish their mission they organize eco-adventure cruises , where a team of Marine Naturallists share they kowledge, raise awareness and develop educational conservation programs to fight against commercial whaling. NOAA Fisheries NOAA - national oceanic and atmospheric administration
Missison is to conserve, protect, and manage living marine resources in a way that ensures their continuation as functioning components of marine ecosystems, affords economic opportunities, and enhances the quality of life for the American public.
NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service is the federal agency, responsible for the nation's living marine resources and their habitat.
NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service works to promote sustainable fisheries and prevent overfishing of declining species and degrade their habitats Greenpeace Greenpeace was founded in the early 1970s to advocate, protect and restore endagered animal species
It’s anti whaling campaigns and ongoing negotiations with Iceland , Japan and Norway to end whale fishing.
Known environmental threats to whales include global warming, pollution, overfishing, ozone depletion, noise such as sonar weaponry, and ship strikes. Industrial fishing threatens the food supply of whales and also puts whales at risk of entanglement in fishing gear. WWF Their mission is to protecting marine life and ocean habitats, and securing the livelihoods of people who depend on the sea.
WWF lobbies vigorously to prevent pro-whaling nations gaining the majority vote that could overturn the 1986 moratorium on commercial whaling
All effort are going to prevent a return of uncontrolled commercial whaling, and promote whale conservation.
Threats such as habitat loss, climate change, unsustainable fishing, ship strikes, oil and gaz industries and whaling are all issues that WWF is trying to mend Sea Shepherd Established in 1977, Sea Shepherd Conservation Society (SSCS) is an international non-profit, marine wildlife conservation organization.
Sea Shepherd, guided by the United Nations World Charter for Nature, is the only organization whose mission is to enforce international conservation regulations on the high seas.
Some of their ways to do so :
Ramming and disabling whaling ships
shutting down whaling fleets
confronting and opposing iligal whaling
Sea Shepherd has gone on to end 9 illegal whaling vessels, saving thousands of whales.
These campaigns and other Sea Shepherd efforts have kept the issue of whaling in the international spotlight for the past thirty years.
Sea Shepherd Conservation Society has been the most aggressive and most successful whale-saving organization in the world. Whaling in Canada There are about 33 different species of whales in Canadian waters
Whaling has been present for native people such as the Inuit for a long time
The peak of whaling activity in Canada was from 1820 to 1840 Foreign whalers hunted in the Artic archipelago even though it belonged to Canada
Reduced whaling after World War 1 Canada joined the IWC (International Whaling Comission) in 1946...
And left the IWC in 1982 but kept most of the regulations and still banned whaling
Subsistence whaling is still allowed in Canada for certain Inuit groups Whaling in the US Historically, US is a big whaling country because of American colonists
New England and particularly New Bedford, Massachusetts, was one of the biggest whaling ports in the world during the 19th century The United States is now a leader in whale conservation, helps to conserve whale populations in US waters and around the world
Some whaling in certain Native American tribes, such as Makah tribe which still practices sustainable whaling Statue of a whale fisherman in New Bedford, Massachusetts Whaling in Europe Some European countries still practice whaling mostly as a tradition or for food
Norway did not agree to the IWC, but has a set quota per year depending on the stock of Minke whales which is hunted for its meat
Russia agreed to the IWC and up to 140 whales per year may be hunted in the North-East of the Country
Iceland also agreed to the IWC and has a set quota of whales they are allowed to hunt per year In the Faroe Islands, which belong to Denmark, whaling is allowed as a tradition and even recognized by international law
Pilot whales are the most hunted, during the traditional Faroese Whale Drive, more than 1,000 whales are killed along with other species of whales and dolphins The Faroese Whale Drive (shocking video!) . Japan- a whale killing nation Country with the biggest whaling industry also known as commercial whaling.
900 whales were killed in 2008/2009
Able to find loopholes in IWC legislation
Therefore IWC should be revised!
Scientific research and quotas
A source of conflicts
Why still legal? Whaling in Japan Scientific research
JARPA I & JARPA II
Whaling quota for research is not respected
Why they actually do it:
encouraged Japan’s claimed reasons for whaling & why they actually do it: Cultural Tradition
Japan Fisheries say "No one should criticize and should be seen like any other cultural traditions"
Japan promotes whale meat consumption!
Whales meats in:
School lunch programs
Sushi Whale meat consumption Pirate whaling
World Wildlife Fund
The main issue!
Japan is responsible for hunting species of whales that are classified as being endangered and close to becoming extinct if current whaling trend keeps increasing.
Southern hemisphere Fin whales
North Pacific Sperm whales Oppositions (1)
Japan has had much opposition due to being the largest whaling community in the world.
The main opposition is from Australia, which claims that the whaling is taking place in their exclusive economic zone, which is 200 nautical miles from the Australian coast.
Internal Opposition (Japanese population says no more whaling)
Right wing parties say "yes"
Left wing parties say "no" Oppositions (2) Biggest opposition to whaling, serious conflict with Japan concerning properties
Whales are Australia’s property within their water.
Exclusive Economic Zone
Their rights to those water
IWC regulations are not respected and should be reinforced!
Whale watching is a big tourism attraction Australia - a strong opposition!!! Separates endangered species in 3 Appendices:
- Appendix 1: Species in danger of extinction
Strictly illegal to trade (most whales are included)
- Appendix 2: Species that may become in danger if traded
Permit required to trade (2 types of whale)
- Appendix 3: Controlled species
Trade only allowed between authorized nations
(Inuit and other traditional tribes) (CITES) Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora Nations that have signed this treaty:
Have a duty to conserve marine mammals
Have a duty to follow the International Whaling Convention’s guidelines
The duty imposed by UNCLOS is thought to be stronger than the obligations imposed under the International Whaling Convention. (UNCLOS) United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Australian Exclusive Economic Zone 200 nautical miles (370 km) from shore Contrast of whaling between countries Have organizations done enough in the regulation of whaling or should they enforce it until it is non-existant? Thank you!