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Ancient Greece

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by

Gus Gil

on 25 August 2016

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Transcript of Ancient Greece

World History
Mr. Gil

Ancient Greece
Early Greeks lived on
rocky
,
mountainous
lands surrounded by
water
.
Since mountains cover much of Greece, there are few flat areas for
farming
. People settled in those flat areas along the coast and in river valleys.
Since inland travel was difficult because of the rugged and mountainous land, the early Greeks turned to the
sea
.
The Mediterraneans Sea is on Greece's
south
, the Ionian Sea is on its
west
, and the Aegean Sea is on its east.
Early Greeks became skilled
ship builders
and
sailors
.
Early Greeks were able to sail as far as
Asia Minor
(present-day Turkey) and
Egypt
. As they traveled they found food, products, and exchanged information and ideas with other cultures.
Many cultures settled and developed in Greece. Two of the earliest were the
Minoans
and the
Mycenaeans
. By 2000 BC, the
Minoans
had built an advanced society.
The
Mycenaens
spoke the Greek language and are the first group of people to be considered Greek.
The
Mycenaens
built fortresses all over the Greek mainland.
By the mid 1400s BC,
Minoan
society had declined and that allowed for the
Mycenaens
to take over and become the dominant trade partner of the
Mediterranean
.
Mycenaens
did not always trade peacefully. They often attacked other kingdoms.
Mycenaen
society fell apart in the 1200s BC when invaders from Europe came to Greece. Earthquakes hit Greece around this same time.
Greece fell into period of warfare and disorder called the
Dark Age
.
Early Greek Culture
The Greeks of the
Dark Age
left no written records. All of what we know about the period comes from
archaeological
findings.
About 300 years after the
Mycenaen
civilization crumbled, the Greeks started to create small groups for protection and stability. Eventually these small groups turned into
city-states
or
polis
.
These
city-states
became more advanced over time and eventually led to the development of
democracy
, a type of government where people rule themselves.
Athenian Democracy
changed over time. In early Athens, a
king
ruled the
city-state
. Later,
aristocrats
which are rich landowners took power. This created an
oligarchy
which is when a small group of people has the power.
Government in Athens
Key Figures
Draco
- Created very strict laws in Athens around in the 600s BC.
Solon
- Created laws that were much less harsh and granted citizenship to all who lived in Athens in the 590s BC.
Peisistratus
- Overthrew the
oligarchy
and became a
tyrant
leader in Athens.
Cleisthenes
- Gained power around 500 BC. Established the world's first
democracy
. He gave all citizens in Athens the right to participate in assembly that created the city's laws.
Citizens
gained more power.
Pericles
- Led Athens during its
Golden Age
. Encouraged people to take pride in their city. He believed that participating in government was just as important as defending Athens in war.
Athenian Democracy
Geography and Early Greeks
Greek Mythology and Literature
The Greeks believed in many gods. These gods were at the center of Greek
Mythology
- a body of stories about heroes and gods that try to explain the way the world works.
Among the earliest known Greek writings are two epic poems, the
Iliad
and the
Odyssey
, by a poet named
Home
r. The
Iliad
tells the story of the last years of the Trojan War. It focuses on the Greeks especially
Achilles
who was considered the greatest of all Greek warriors. The
Odyssey
describes the challenges that Greek hero Odysseus faced on his way home from the Trojan War.
Sappho
was the most famous female poet in Ancient Greece. Her poems were beautiful and emotional poems about love and relationships.
Fables were important in Ancient Greece. Fables are short stories that teach the reader life lessons.
Aesop
was a famous fable writer. Most of his fables had animals as the lead characters. Among Aesop's fables are: The Ants and the Grasshopper, The Tortoise and the Hare, and The Boy Who Cried Wolf".
Photo Credit to Morgan
Weber
Full transcript