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The Endocrine System

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Jessica Castillo

on 9 March 2014

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Transcript of The Endocrine System

The Endocrine System
The Endocrine system
About Glands
They are vascular and generally do not have ducts
Unlike exocrine glands which secretes its substances outside of the body, endocrine glands secrete into the blood steam
The glands use intracellular vacuoles, or granules to store hormones
The endocrine system gets help from other organs (kidney, liver, heart, gonads) which have secondary endocrine functions
Functions of glands
Adrenal Gland
: (2 regions) secrete hormones that influence the body's metabolism, blood chemicals, and body characteristics
influence part of nervous system that is involved in response and defense against stress
: secrete hormones that influence female and male characteristics
Parathyroid gland
: secrete hormone that maintains calcium level in blood
Pituitary gland
: produces hormones that influence various endocrine glands
Endocrine and Nervous system
Endocrine and Nervous system
each affects each other
ex: adrenal medulla is under control of the nerve cells but the nervous system's development is controlled by the endocrine system
both are also structurally similar
endocrine glands and tissues are rooted in the nervous system
ex: hypothalamus is a nervous tissue that influences the function of a gland and it's secretion of hormones
Endocrine and reproductive system
reproduction is influenced by hormones
-(male) deepens voice and produces facial hair
-(female) widens hips and mammary glands and thickens uterus lining to prepare for pregnancy
-(female) produced by yellow tissue in empty ovarian follicles, maintains thickness of uterus lining and starts the menstrual cycle
Endocrine and Immune system
the endocrine system secrete hormones and substances which regulate activity and maturation of the immune system
the endocrine system also plays a role in physiological control of inflammation which then influences blood flow which then finally influences where immune cells have access to
the endocrine system's release of cortisol inhibits immune response while the products of the immune system modulates endocrine response to infection.
two types
type 1:production disorder where less insulin is produced
type 2: inability of body to respond to insulin (more common)
in people who do not have diabetes, insulin, which decreases the sugar, and glucagon, increases sugar level,are balanced
according to the american diabeties association, 1.9 million Americans are diagnosed with diabetes every year
to treat type 1 diabetes, the person must inject insulin or else their sugar levels will become too high. As for type 2, the individual can take medication which included those which help to increase insulin sensitivity, those which stimulate the pancreas to release more insulin and other medications which inhibit the release of glucagon
Over time, too much glucose in your blood can cause problems. It can damage your eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Diabetes can also cause heart disease, stroke, and even the need to remove a limb.
symptoms: weight less, increased appetite, nervousness, anxiety, irritability, tremor (fine trembling in your hands and fingers) and sweating
signs and symptoms are generally a result from stimulation of adrenergic nervous system
Hypothyroidism is when the thyroid gland makes thyroid hormone than the body needs
usually caused by Graves disease, toxic mulinodular goiter, toxic uninodular goiter and thyroiditis
treatment is aimed at relieving symptoms and restoring metabolic function
Chemistry of Hormones
: a chemical substance that is secreted by cells into the extracellular fluid and regulate the metabolic activity of other cells in the body

Addison's disease
rare and progressive disorder that affects both genders at all ages
happens when adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormone cortisol and in some cases the hormone aldosterone
disease commonly called adrenal insufficiency, or hypocortisolism
causes: autoimmune response that attacks and damages adrenal glands overtime
cortisol helps
maintain blood pressure and heart function
slow down the immune system's inflammation response
regulate metabolism of proteins, fats and charbohydrates
The endocrine system helps regulate and maintain body functions by synthesizing and releasing horemones
The major areas it controls are:
response to stress/ injury
growth and development
absorption of nutrients
water balance
How it works
When a gland releases a hormone, it will travel through the bloodstream(endo meaning inside). These hormones are designed to interact with a specific part of the body, so when it arrives at this organ or tissue, a message will be sent to this area.
The glands in the endocrine system also contain mechanisms that help regulate how much of the hormone is in the system at any given time.
How it works
Signs from the body like calcium levels and the amount of material in the digestive track, allow the glands to turn on and off to increase or decrease hormone levels.
some hormone levels will also naturally increase and decrease as we age
in women estrogen and prolactin decreases significantly
in men testosterone slightly decreases
in both genders, Luteinizing hormone (LH) and Follicle-Stimulating hormone (FSH) increase with age
Two classifications
nonsteroidal amino acid derivatives
proteins, peptides, amines
steroids (made from cholesterol)
sex hormones made by gonads and hormones produced by the adrenal cortex

"Aging Changes in Hormone Production: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia." U.S National Library of Medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2014.

"Endocrine System Function | MD-Health.com." MD-Health.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2014.

"Endocrine System Information." Endocrine System Information. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Mar. 2014.

"What Is the Connection Between the Endocrine System and Nervous System?" WiseGEEK. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2014.

Zimmermann, Kim Ann. "Endocrine System: Facts, Functions and Diseases." LiveScience. TechMedia Network, 22 Jan. 2013. Web. 02 Mar. 2014.

Endocrine and respiratory system
both depend on each other
the respiratory system delivers oxygen to the endocrine glands
the hormone adrenalin stimulates respiratory activity
some hormones have an effect on dilation of alveoli (respiratory passage) which affects the amount of oxygen the lungs absorb
hormones provide feedback to the brain to affect neural processing
endocrine and the cardiovascular system
thyroid hormone effects the heart's rate of beating and blood pressure
The endocrine system relies on the cardiovascular system to deliver hormone and neuropeptide products of endocrine glands
The cardiovascular system relies on the endocrine system for hormonal input into the functions of the heart
ex: angiotensin released by the kidney signals the arteries to contract and indirectly causes an increase in heart rate
Endocrine and skeletal system
osteocalcin, a protein secreted by bone cells, regulates insulin production and insulin sensitivity in the body
the thyroid and sex hormones ensure that normal skeletal proportions are established during childhood and adolescence
the growth hormone is essential for normal skeletal growth and maintenance throughout life
Functions of glands
: activates and controls part of nervous system that controls involuntary body functions and the hormonal system
regulating sleep and stimulating appetite
: secretes insulin which controls the use of glucose by the body
pineal body
: section of brain that relays sensory info between the brains different regions
secretes melatonin, regulates endocrine functions and converts signals from nervous system into endocrine
thymus gland
: plays role in immune system
thyroid gland
: produces hormones that stimulate body heat, bone growth, and metabolism
Steroid Hormone Action
Steroid Hormone is not water soluble. They travel in the blood attached to protein carriers.
When they arrive to their target cells, they dissociate from their protein carriers and pass through the plasma membrane of the cell.
Steroid Hormone Action
Some steroid hormones bind to specific receptor proteins in the cytoplasm and move as a hormone-receptor complex into the nucleus.
Other steroids travel directly into the nucleus before encountering their receptor proteins
The hormone receptor protein, activated by binding to the hormone, is now able to bind to specific regions of the DNA known as the hormone response elements
Nonsteroid Hormone Action
hormone molecules binds to the receptor embedded within the cell membrane
once bound, an enzyme shifts into action causing new chemicals to exist in the cytoplasm
these chemicals trigger even more enzyme reactions and often also cause some new proteins to be made in the nucleus by affecting the DNA of the cell
both are communication links of the body and aid the body's life systems to function correctly
they work hand in hand acting in communicating and driving hormonal changes
they are connected because both respond to changes inside and outside of the body
How It relates to other body systems
Goiters: an enlarged thyroid of a boy from Bangladesh- an example of hyperthyroidism
thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone to meet the body's need
without the hormone, many of the body's functions slow down
it happen at any age, but women age 60 and older have a higher risk. It is also more likely if it runs in your family.
Hypothyroidism can make you feel tired and weak. If not treated, it can raise your cholesterol levels and make you more likey to have a heart attack or stroke
During pregnancy, untreated hypothyroidism can harm the baby
symptoms include: fatigue, weight gain, increased sensitivity to cold, constipation, and dry skin
most common cause
surgical removement of thyroid
autoimmune diseases
radiation treatment
to treat hypothyroidism, you can take thyroid hormone pills for the rest of your life. Your symptoms should go away in a week or two
risk factors
family history
females are predisposed to hyper thyroid condition
other autoimmune disorders
maintain a diet adequate in iodine
lessen/ stop the use of tobacco
type of treatment depends on age
antithyroid medicine and radioactive iodine are the most common treatment doctors do
even if the symptoms do not bother you, you should still seek help since not treating hyperthyroidism can lead to more serious problems
Jessica Castillo, Karlya Viera, Thomas Rogers
Addison's disease
symptoms: loss of appetite and weight, nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, low blood pressure, salt craving, mood swings
treatment: you can replace missing hormones by taking hydrocortisone tablets, a steroid, twice a day. This can be substituted with a synthetic steroid, fludrocortisone acetate, once a day.
medication must be increased during times of stress, infection, surgery, or injury
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