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World War I & II in England
Transcript of World War I & II in England
The 26th August the Allied Troops overcame the German opposition, entered in Paris so France was free. Hitler committed suicide. The War continued in Japan and on the 6th of August the Americans decided to use the Atomic Bomb on the city of Hiroshima and three days later on Nagasaki. 1945 1945 1943 Italy was invaded by the allies. More than 55 million of people died and about 6 million Jews perished in Concentration Counts and during the first month of the 1945 the major allies held important conferences to discuss the new post-war order. The condition of Women Women aged over 30 obtained the suffrage. 1918 1919 The Qualification of Women's Act: "A woman shall not be disqualified by sex or marriage from being elected or voting as a Member of the Commons House of Parliament". The Sex Disqualification Act opened up to women the possibility to exercise all professions. 1919 The female voting age was lowered to 21. 1928 Women were employed as duty staff officers during coastal operations, signal officers, radio mechanics and telegraphers. during the War Modernism in Art Painting Music Modernism is a movement opposed to Traditionalism. Traditional ideas were no longer accepted; scepticism involved everything: there is a new anxious vision of the World. In the first half of the 20th century sprang up several movements such as Fauvism (Grant and Smith), Cubism (Bomberg), Futurism and Vorticism. 1922 - Foundation of the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation). Second World War: EIRE remained neutral and did not allow the use of its ports to the Allied Forces.
1949: EIRE's secession from the Commonwealth. 1931: Statute of Westminster
1933: The President of the Irish Republic abolished the Oath Allegiance to the British Monarch as the Head of the Commonwealth. The Irish Question The Dominions (South Africa, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Newfoundland) They had contributed to Victory in World War I - and they realized their collective power as self-governing communities.
1926: Imperial conference in London: Dominions are recognized as autonomous communities within the British Empire.
1931: Statute of Westminster: Complete legislative power to Dominions. Women were included in particular branches of the Armed Forces. People were directly involved: the home front became the scene of indiscriminate slaughter through air raids and rocket attacks. The Exploitation of Science Technology in the search of more up-to-date methods of offence and defence. Beveridge Plan was a plan which was comprehensive of social insurance and laid the foundations for the Welfare State. Consequences of the World War II Welfare State is the totality of schemes and services through which the central government assumed a major responsibility for dealing with all the different types of social problems. 1. Education Act in 1944 which made State School education compulsory and free the age of 5 to the age of 15. University is now also available to all students. National insurance act in 1946 which assured State assistant of unemployment sickness and maternity. National Health Service in 1946 which provided free medical and hospital services to all British residents. National Assistance Act in 1948 designed to provide assistance to indigent people out of general taxes. Consequences of the Welfare State 1. It was necessary to redistribute wealth by taxation.
2. Wage-earners received more and the rich paid heavier taxes.
3. Emergence of a new middle class maid up of a category of highly paid workers together with the decline of the older british ruling class.
4. Policy of nationalization by the Labour Party Britain was an advanced industrial country thanks to urbanization, economic growth, an increase in population and an expansion of the transport network. The aristocracy lost much of its direct influence, as the emerging wealthy class. A social hierarchy still played an important role. Middle class was divided into the upper middle class and lower middle class. At the bottom there was the working class. Consequences of the World War I Economic consequences Positive consequences General Strike of 1926 Democracy A fall in the value of money
A raise in taxation
Excessive profits of some war-profiteers and the losses of others
Transfer of wealth to new social classes The influence of living standards - war production had demanded full-time labour, a rise in price, leading to inflation.
Better organization of labour - need for more workers, the Government had to cope with the new demands of the Trade Unions. Caused by the reduction of mine workers' wages. The Trade Unions leaders, after 10 days, called off the strike, fearing revolutionary movements. The miners continued an unprofitable struggle for an other six months.
Wall Street Crash 1929 The War had also an important role in the development of Democracy. All men could vote. World War II The Germans invaded Poland, on the 3rd of September France and England declared war to Germany. 1939 1940 Hitler's forces invaded Holland and Belgium.
In England the Conservative Government was replaced by a coalition headed by Churchill Italy declared war to Britain and France.
Battle of Britain: England vs Germany -> Heavy bomber raids continued day and night on London and other important cities. The pilots of the RAF won the battle. 1940 World War II turning point: Japan attacked the American naval base of Pearl Harbor in December, forcing the USA to enter the War. 1941 Hitler vs Russia. Germany won the battle of Stalingrad but the Russians resisted and transformed their retreat into victory.
Italy and Germany withdraw from battle. 1943 After four years of war, the USA gave the ultimate blow to Germany. The armistice was signed on November, 11th 1918. The Peace treaty was signed at Versailles in June, 1919. On one side were Germany and Austria-Hungary, on the other Britain, the British Empire, Russia, France, Italy and the USA.
The Germans broke the rules of war: they adopted a submarine strategy and used prohibited poison gas. This brought the USA into War. World War I England declared War on Germany.
George V changed his german name of Hanover to the English name of Windsor. Causes:
William II, ruler of Germany, tried to extend his influence over the Balkan States. This endangered British control over Egypt and India.
France & England eliminated any possible source of conflict with the entente cordiale.
Germany challenged Britain in naval policy by building big capital ships.
Serbia was very dangerous for the Austrian Empire.
1914: The Archduke Francis Ferdinand was murdered. This offered an opportunity for War. 6th December 1921: Britain recognized the Status of Ireland as a free State within the British Commonwealth of Nations. It was called EIRE. 1916 - Easter Rising: Sinn Fein extremists had rebelled in Dublin. They thought that trough the use of force the Irish could obtain Independence. The Beginning of the Century After the Victorian Age, characterized by a rigid moralism: an age of moderation, with the new king George V (1910-36).
In 1906 a General Election was held, the Liberal Party won.
an urgent need for social reforms
Parliament Act - money bills could become law without the consent of the Lord
National Insurance Act - in order to insure workers against sickness and to guarantee them a minimum sum in case of unemployment It was missed the opportunity for satisfying the Irish Nationalists by granting them the Home Rule: the Protestants of the Ulster didn’t want to separate from Britain.