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Grace Chisholm Young

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courtney beaudrie

on 15 December 2014

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Transcript of Grace Chisholm Young

Grace's Early Life
Schooling Cont.
Research & Contributions to Math
Honors Geometry
Mrs. Sowatsky
Semester Project
Grace's Early Life:
~She starting working in social work to help poor people, in accordance with the wishes of her parents.
~Her topic of choice was medicine, but her parents stopped her from studying this.
~Finally, four years after her senior examination, she was offered a scholarship to go to Girton College at Cambridge.
~Girton College was the first college in England to educate women at a university level.

Grace Chisholm Young was born on March 15, 1868 in Haslemere, England.
Her parents were Anna Louisa Bell and Henry Williams Chisholm. Her mother was 44 and her father was 59 years old when she was born. She was the youngest of four children.

When she was 6 years old her father retired and they moved.
There she was educated by a governess, a woman who was employed by her parents to teach her at home.
At the age of 17 she passed the Cambridge Senior Examination.
Schooling cont.
-After she finished her Ph.D. at Gottingen she returned home to England to care after her parents.
-There she reunited with William Henry young.
-Grace encouraged her husband to begin research in the mathematical field.

Courtney $ Beaudrie and Bryanna $ Idzior
Grace Chisholm Young
Monday, December 15
*At Girton her tutor was William Young.
*At the end of her first year the Mays list had been released and Grace was at the top of the second list right under one other prestigious female.
*In 1893 she had passed her final examinations and had a score equivalent to a first-class degree.
*Grace had also taken on a personal challenge with the girl who had been above her on the Mays list. They had both taken the exam for the Final Honors School in mathematics at the University of Oxford. Grace not only beat her rival but also out-preformed all of the Oxford students.
Girton College
*Even though Grace had completed all of her examinations, women were not awarded formal degrees at the time.
*She continued to attend Cambridge for another year to complete part II of the Mathematical Tripos, being extremely unusual for women at that time
*Women were also not allowed in graduate schools in England, but Grace was determined to continue with her studies.
Cambridge cont.
*So Grace left her home in England to attend the University of Gottigen, in Germany to study with Felix Klein.
*This college was one of the major mathematical centers of the world and had to be approved by the government.
*In 1895, Grace, at the age of 27 was the first woman to attain a doctorate in any field in Germany.
*To take the examination, government approval had to be given again. This consisted of vigorous questions by several professors on multiple topics such as, geometry, differential equations, physics, astronomy, and the idea of her essay.
*With her exam she also had to take courses showing diverse knowledge and to prepare a thesis.
*Her thesis was titled "Algebraic Groups of Spherical Trigonometry"
University of Gottigen
~"They lived for a year in Italy where they undertook research in geometry but did not find it particularly exciting."
~They moved back to Germany. Their work was among many areas, including the topology of the real line and plane, measure theory and integration, Fourier series, and the foundations of differential calculus.
~During their time, the whole field of what was then called 'The Theory of Functions of a Real Variable' was edited and rewritten. Grace and her husband were a big contribution to this effort.
~Together they wrote 214 mathematical articles and several books.
~They put extensive effort into teaching their children, which led to the writing of several children's books. One of the elementary books was a geometry book called
A First Book of Geometry
, which was translated into four languages. The book was published in 1905, and was on paper folding for children.
~In their book on Geometry, Grace removed the main problem most student have on learning Geometry, representing three-dimensional figures on a two-dimensional surface. She did this by demonstrating how to construct three-dimensional objects by cutting, folding, and refolding special patterns which she called "nets". Students could easily make these nets which allowed the solids properties to be understood clearly, and visualizing the theorems of solid Geometry.
~Most of their work was published together, but Grace did most of the actual writing. She also produced independent work which, according to experts, was deeper and more important than her husbands.

Contributions to Math
~Due to declining health Grace stopped her mathematical research in the mid 1920's.

~William died in 1942 because he was depressed and lonely because he could never see his family again.

~Grace had died two years after William of a heart attack before she could receive the honorary degree Girton college planned to give her.

Not to be confused with Grace Eleanor Mikesell
She was given the 1915 Gamble Prize at Cambridge on the Infinitive Derivatives, an essay on the foundations of calculus.
The most famous thing Grace is associated with is Denjoy-Young-Saks theorem.

Besides mathematics, her other accomplishments were completing all the requirements for a medical degree, learning six languages, teaching each of her six children a musical instrument, and writing one of the first children's books on reproduction called "Bimbo and the Frogs".
*Their first child Frank was born in 1897 and was given the nickname "Bimbo" by his parents. He then went on to become a pilot in World war 1 and was killed.
*Their eldest daughter, and second child of Grace and William was named Rosalind and she had taken a doctorate in mathematics at Girton but could not receive a formal degree from Cambridge because they were not yet being granted to women. She then went on to become a member of the University of London and won the Gamble Prize in 1939.
*Their next child was Janet (not to be confused with Janet Burkardt) became a physician and the first female member of the Royal College of Surgeons.
*The fourth Young child was named Helen, she studied mathematics at the University of Lausanne and married an associate professor of french.
*Their next child was Laurence and he was a mathematician of tician an taught at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, and later at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
*Their sixth and final child was Patrick. He trained in science and chemistry at Oxford University but he had a career in public finance and diplomacy.
*William and Grace spentt a great deal of time and effort in the education of their children.
***lil tidally bit: they had 15 grandchildren

$elfie wit Gracee Chisholm Young
#thank you
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