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Civil Rights ABC Book

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on 6 May 2014

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Transcript of Civil Rights ABC Book

because of
Z
ora Neale Hurston
because those were
A
frican
A
mericans

African Americans were often referred to as “negroes” during the Civil Rights Movement. What was once simply a name based off the color of their darker skin soon became known as a derogatory term toward their race. It is still considered a derogatory term in the United States today.
because of
B
rown vs.
B
oard of Education


B is for desegregation
because of
F
ranklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin D. Roosevelt did a lot of that helped the civil rights movement and supported them in their ideals. In June 1941, Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8802, which created the Fair Employment Practices Committee. It was the most important federal move that supported the rights of African-Americans between Reconstruction and the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This order stated that the federal government would not hire any person based on their race, color, creed, or national origin. The FEPC enforced the order to ban discriminatory hiring within the federal government and in corporations that received federal contracts. Millions of blacks and women achieved better jobs and better pay as a result. The war brought the race issue to the forefront. The Army and Navy had been segregated since the Civil War (Franklin).
F
is for Presidents
because of the
C
ivil rights act of 1964

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public (known as "public accommodations"). The Act was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson on July 2, 1964 at the White House (The Civil).
The bill was called for by President John F. Kennedy in his civil rights speech of June 11, 1963, in which he asked for legislation "giving all Americans the right to be served in facilities which are open to the public—hotels, restaurants, theaters, retail stores, and similar establishments", as well as "greater protection for the right to vote” (The Civil).


C
is for Lyndon B. Johnson
Civil Rights ABC Book
By: Jess Baird and Dani Autencio
Because they were for
D
esegregation

CORE, or Congress of Racial Equality, played a large role in the Civil Rights Movement. They were founded in the 1940’s by a group of college students at the University of Chicago, but did not become well known until the 1960’s. They helped fight for equality during the 1960’s and participated in many major events such as The March on Washington. Another major contribution that CORE made towards the Civil Rights Movement was called the Freedom Riders. They sent 8 white and 8 black males on a “journey” through a few states in order to raise awareness of segregation. Although they were caught and jailed many times, the group of men gained a lot of publicity and helped spread the word of equality.
D
is for CORE
E
is for Support
because of president
E
isenhower

Eisenhower was the president in office when the Civil Rights movement really began to take off. He was in full support of desegregation, especially in the school systems. In 1957, the state of Arkansas refused to honor a federal court order to integrate their public school system stemming from the Brown decision. Eisenhower demanded that Arkansas governor Orval Faubus obey the court order.
Because of
G
reensboro, North Carolina


G
is for sit-ins
A
is for Negro
because they marched marched along on Jefferson Davis
H
ighway
H is for Bloody Sunday
because of the
I
Have a Dream Speech
I is for the Lincoln Memorial
Because of
J
ob Discriminations

Job discrimination was a major issue during the Civil Rights Movement. Stores would post “Help Wanted” signs in their windows, but would specifically write things such as “Blacks Need Not Apply” or “Whites Only”. It became very difficult for anyone of color to get a job. Because of this, people could not support their families and times became even tougher than they already were for African Americans. Not only were they being discriminated from employment, but places began not allowing people of color to consume their products or even enter their establishments. In some communities home was one of the only places African Americans could go.

J
is for “Need Not Apply”
Because of the
K
u
K
lux
K
lan

The Ku Klux Klan in Atlanta was a group composed of southern whites who violently opposed segregation. The civil rights movement of the 1960s saw a surge of local Klan activity across the South, including the bombings, beatings and shootings of black and white activists. They would even attack African Americans who would peacefully protest against segregated businesses in downtown Atlanta. These actions, carried out in “secret” but apparently the work of local Klansmen, outraged the nation and helped win support for the civil rights cause.

K
is for racists
L is for boundaries
Because of
M
artin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King Jr. was the face of the Civil Rights Movement. His motivating speeches and gutless determination are what the this country to equality. From the Montgomery Bus Boycott to the March on Washington, King took a leadership role throughout all of them. His name is now synonomus with the Civil Rights Movement. One thing that made Martin Luther King Jr. was well known for was his nonviolent civil disobedience. He didn’t start riots or fights, but peacefully displayed his arguments. This was what made King so well liked during the Civil Rights Movement.

Because of the Mason-Dixon
L
ine
The Mason-Dixon Line was the boundary between Maryland and Pennsylvania, taken as the northern limit of the slave-owning states before the abolition of slavery. Although the Mason-Dixon line did not exist during the time of the Civil Rights, it was the beginning of discrimination and civil rights between Whites and African Americans. Slavery itself is where discrimination began. African Americans were thought of as lesser people, or not even people at all. However, because north of the Mason-Dixon Line didn’t believe in slavery, that is where equality and civil rights began to come into play.

M
is for leadership
because of the
N
AACP
N is for advancement of colored people
because of all the
o
rganizations that came from the civil rights movement
O is for standing up for beliefs
because of
P
lessey vs. Ferguson
P is for “separate but equal”
Because of their famous
Q
uotes

Speeches were a way for activists to help inspire everyone who was in support of the Civil Rights Movement, and motivate those who were still on the fence. The quotes from famous activists such as Martin Luther King Jr., Andrew Young, Rosa Parks, and more are still influential and referenced today.

Q
is for speeches
Because of
R
osa Parks

In Montgomery Alabama, Rosa Parks refused to move her seat on the bus simply because she was black and they wanted her to give up her seat to a white man. But she was tired, and elder, and didn’t feel the need to give her seat to a young white male. So she decided to take a stand, (or a seat), against racism and segregation and remain seated. Everyone was outraged. Things soon escalated and a riot broke out. Naturally both the white and black communities were upset by what happened. It was completely unheard for an African American woman to stand up for rights. Parks’ display of courage inspired the black community to hold boycott against all segregated and racist buses. It lasted 381 days and was a success. Finally, on December 20, 1956, congress declared segregated buses unconstitutional.

R
is for Bus Boycott
because of the
S
outhern Christian Leadership Conference
S is for Atlanta
because of the
T
emple bombing in Atlanta
T is for white supremacies
Because of the
U
nited Negro Veterans

The United Negro Veterans marched from Ebenezer Baptist Church to Atlanta City Hall in 1945 to protest against police brutality. This demonstration was a factor in Mayor Hartsfield’s decision to hire the first eight African American Police Officers. However, despite the strong protests and disagreements, Hartsfield went through with hiring the eight men. While this seems like great progress, these officers could not arrest white suspects, making their job a little insignificant. They were initially stationed at a local YMCA.

U
is for Police Officers
because of the
V
oting rights act of 1965
V is for civil rights legislation
because of the march on
W
ashington
This was one of the largest political rallies for human rights in United States history and was for civil and economic rights for African Americans. It took place in Washington, D.C..Thousands of Americans headed to Washington on Tuesday August 27, 1963.
The march was organized by a group of civil rights, labor, and religious organizations. The march helped to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the passage the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
W
is for Marching
because of Malcom
X

Malcom X was a human rights activist for the Civil Rights Movement. He was a courageous advocate for the rights of blacks. He often spoke harshly of "white America"for its crimes against black Americans; many accused him of preaching racism and violence towards whites. He has been called one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history.
X
is for Activist
because of Andrew
Y
oung
Y is for second hand man
Z is for Their Eyes Were Watching God
This case decided that the state laws that made it so public schools for black and white students were separate was unconstitutional. In 1951, a suit was filed against the Board of Education of the city Topeka, Kansas in the US District Court for the District of Kansas. The plaintiffs in the case were thirteen Topeka parents on the behalf of their twenty children. The Brown vs. Board of Education heard by the Supreme Court was a combined five cases; Brown vs. Board of education, Briggs vs. Elliot which was filed in South Carolina, Davis vs. County School Board of Prince Edward County filed in Virginia, Gerbert vs. Belton filed in Delaware, and Bolling vs. Sharpe filed in Washington D.C. Brown vs. Board of Education is a Supreme Court case that happened during the civil rights movement and really got things started towards moving to equality. This Supreme Court decision overturned the decision made in 1896 by the Plessy vs. Ferguson trial that allowed state segregation in public education. Racial segregation was ruled as a violation of the Equal Protection Clause in the Fourteenth Amendment in the Constitution. This ruling paved the way to integration which was a huge step for the civil rights movement (United).
It was a huge victory for the cause and got the ball rolling, and everyone saw this. This was both good and bad for African Americans and their struggle for equality. Everyone was seeing that they were becoming more equal with this because parents saw their white children in school with a black child. This raised a lot of anger towards the African Americans. White people would protest and make their opinions known that they did not want the black children in the same school as the white children (United).
Bloody Sunday, the nickname for The Selma to Montgomery marches and the two marches that followed, were marches and protests held in 1965. All three were attempts to march from Selma to Montgomery where the Alabama capitol is located. The first march took place on March 7, 1965, "Bloody Sunday" when 600 marchers, protesting the death of Jimmie Lee Jackson and ongoing attacks by state and local police with clubs and tear gas. The second march took place March 9; police forced 2,500 protesters to turn around after crossing the Edmund Pettus Bridge. The third march started March 16. There were 2,000 soldiers of the U.S. Army, 1,900 members of the Alabama National Guard under Federal command, and many FBI agents and Federal Marshals to stop the marchers. The marchers averaged 10 miles a day along U.S. Route 80, known in Alabama as the "Jefferson Davis Highway". The marchers arrived in Montgomery on March 24 and at the Alabama State Capitol on March 25 (United States).

"I Have a Dream" is a public speech delivered by Martin Luther King, Jr. on August 28, 1963, where he addresses racism in the United States. He delivered it to over 250,000 civil rights supporters from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington, the speech was a defining moment of the American Civil Rights Movement. King described his dreams of freedom and equality arising from a land of slavery and hatred. The speech was ranked the top American speech of the 20th century in a 1999 poll of scholars of public address (Martin).
Toward the end of its delivery, noted African American gospel singer Mahalia Jackson shouted to King from the crowd, "Tell them about the dream, Martin." King stopped delivering his prepared speech and started "preaching", punctuating his points with "I have a dream." (Martin).
The speech was drafted with the assistance of Stanley Levison and Clarence Benjamin Jones in Riverdale, New York City. “I still have a dream, a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. One day this nation will rise up and live up its creed. We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal. I have a dream… (Martin).
Plessy vs. Ferguson was a court case that started with segregation of railways in Louisiana. In 1890 Louisiana passed the Separate Car Act that said you had to have separate accommodations for blacks and whites on railroads which included even the railway cars. Homer Plessy was born a free man and was classified as black under Louisiana law even though he was seven eighths white and one eighth black. On July 7, 1892 he bought a first class ticket and boarded a “whites only” car in New Orleans, Louisiana. After he sat down in the car he was asked to leave the car and go to a “blacks only” car. He refused and was arrested. The case here after was Homer Adolph Plessy vs. The State of Louisiana. His lawyers argued that the state law that required the railways to segregate trains denied Plessy his rights under the thirteenth and fourteenth amendment of the US constitution. The judge, John Howard Ferguson however ruled that Louisiana had the right to regulate the railroad companies in state boundaries. Plessy was convicted and had to pay a twenty-five dollar fine (Educational).





After the 1964 elections, civil rights organizations such as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) pushed for federal action to protect the voting rights of racial minorities (History).
The voting rights act of 1965 is a landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits discrimination in voting. It was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson during the height of the American Civil Rights Movement. Congress later amended the Act five times to expand its protections. The Act is widely considered to be the most effective piece of civil rights legislation ever enacted in the country. The Act also has special provisions that apply only to certain areas, such as a requirement that these areas with significant language minority populations provide bilingual ballots and other election materials (History).
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is an African-American civil rights organization in the US formed in 1909. Its mission is to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination (NAACP).
The NAACP's headquarters is in Baltimore, with other offices in California, New York, Michigan, Colorado, Georgia, Texas and Maryland. There are Local, youth, and college chapters that organize activities for individual members. Departments within the NAACP govern areas of action. Local chapters are supported by the 'Branch and Field Services' department and the 'Youth and College' department. The 'Legal' department focuses on court cases of broad application to minorities, such as systematic discrimination in employment, government, or education. The Washington, D.C., bureau is responsible for lobbying the U.S. government, and the Education Department works to improve public education at the local, state and federal levels. The goal of the Health Division is to advance health care for minorities through public policy initiatives and education (NAACP).
The 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama was bombed on Sunday, September 15, 1963 as an act of white supremacist terrorism. The explosion at the African-American church, which killed four girls contributed to support for passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Birmingham).
Although city leaders had reached a settlement in May with demonstrators and started to integrate public places, not everyone agreed with ending racial segregation. Bombings and other acts of violence followed the settlement, and the church had become an obvious target. The three-story 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama was a meeting place for civil rights activities, and was where the students who were arrested during the 1963 Birmingham campaign's Children's Crusade were trained. The church was used as a meeting-place for civil rights leaders such as Martin Luther King, Jr., Ralph David Abernathy and Fred Shuttlesworth (Birmingham).

Andrew Jackson Young was born on March 12, 1932. He was an American politician, diplomat, activist and pastor from Georgia. He has served as a Congressman from Georgia's 5th congressional district, the United States Ambassador to the United Nations, and Mayor of Atlanta. He served as President of the National Council of Churches USA, was a member of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) during the 1960s Civil Rights Movement, and was a supporter and friend of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr (Andrew).
He left political office in 1989 and since has founded or served in a large number of organizations founded on public policy, political lobbying and international relations, with a special focus on Africa (Andrew).
Zora Neale Hurston Born on January 7, 1891and dies on January 28, 1960. She was an American folklorist, anthropologist, and author. Of Hurston's four novels and more than 50 published short stories, plays, and essays, she is best known for her 1937 novel Their Eyes Were Watching God (Zora).
The novel Their Eyes Were Watching God is a narrative with the main character Janie Crawford's "ripening from a vibrant, but voiceless, teenage girl into a woman with her finger on the trigger of her own destiny." The novel is set in central and southern Florida in the early 20th century, the novel was initially poorly received for its rejection of racial uplift literary prescriptions. Today, it has come to be regarded as a seminal work in both African-American literature and women's literature. TIME included the novel in its 2005 list of the 100 best English-language novels published since 1923 (Zora).
The Southern Christian Leadership Conference, SCLC, is an African-American civil rights organization. The first president of the organization was Martin Luther King Jr. The goal of this organization was to “form an organization to coordinate and support nonviolent direct action as a method of desegregating bus systems across the South”. Their first meeting was on January 10, 1957. Their second meeting was on February 15, at this meeting they set Martin Luther King Jr. as president and they worked on the name of the organization. First they used “Negro Leaders Conference of Nonviolent Integration” then it went to “Southern Negro Leaders Conference”, and finally they came up with “Southern Christian Leadership Conference”. Their headquarters were in Atlanta. They decided to change their focus from just ending bus segregation to ending all segregation. They were an organization of affiliates rather than an organization that recruited individuals such as the NAACP. Because of this they had a hard time getting a strong start. By having a church for example to defy the white-power as a whole rather than just a few members of that church it was much easier for the KKK and the White Citizens Council to target it. For this reason very few churches and others wanted to be affiliated with the SCLC (Southern).
There have been many different organizations that have come out from the civil right movement. Some started right away and some that started later. A lot of these organizations are still active today. There are many organizations, and some have been mentioned already in the ABC book so here the focus is on just a few.
One example of these organizations is the Citizens’ Commission on Civil Rights; they are committed to the revitalization of a progressive civil rights agenda at the nationwide. Their belief is that such an agenda benefits the entire country, not just certain groups. Another example is the Lawyer’s Committee for Civil Rights Under Law. They are a nonprofit organization that was formed in 1963 requested by JFK. The Committee's major objective is to use the skills and resources of the bar to obtain equal opportunity for minorities by addressing factors that contribute to racial justice and economic opportunity. The last organization talked about here is the National Action Network, NAN, which was founded in 1991 by Rev. Al Sharptin. They are a civil right organizations with a mission to be the voice of empowerment. NAN offers a committed national advocacy network of activists, volunteers and religious leaders guided by the non-violent civil protest (Civil).
The Greensboro sit-ins were a series of nonviolent protests against restaurants and other establishments that were not segregated in Greensboro, North Carolina in 1960. They were not the first sit-ins to take place during the Civil Rights Movement, however they are the most well-known.
“Darkness cannot drive out darkness; only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate; only love can do that.”
“Only in the darkness can you see the stars.”

“No one really knows why they are alive until they know what they'd die for.”
“Faith is taking the first step even when you can't see the whole staircase.”
Zora Neale Hurston Born on January 7, 1891and dies on January 28, 1960. She was an American folklorist, anthropologist, and author. Of Hurston's four novels and more than 50 published short stories, plays, and essays, she is best known for her 1937 novel Their Eyes Were Watching God (Zora).
The novel Their Eyes Were Watching God is a narrative with the main character Janie Crawford's "ripening from a vibrant, but voiceless, teenage girl into a woman with her finger on the trigger of her own destiny." The novel is set in central and southern Florida in the early 20th century, the novel was initially poorly received for its rejection of racial uplift literary prescriptions. Today, it has come to be regarded as a seminal work in both African-American literature and women's literature. TIME included the novel in its 2005 list of the 100 best English-language novels published since 1923 (Zora).
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United States. National Park Service. "Brown v. Board of Education National Historic Site (U.S. National Park Service)." National Parks Service. U.S. Department of the Interior, 14 Apr. 2014. Web. 02 May 2014.
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"Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum - Our Documents."Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum - Our Documents. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 May 2014.
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Birmingham Church Bombing." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 03 May 2014.
"Andrew Young Jr. Biography." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 05 May 2014.
"Zora Neale Hurston." The Official Website of. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 May 2014.
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Millender, Dharathula H., and Al Fiorentino. Martin Luther King, Jr.: Young Man with a Dream. New York: Aladdin Paperbacks, 1969. Print.

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