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Transcript of Social Psychology
Wealth and Well Being
Many people in the West believe that if they were wealthier, they would be happier. However, data suggests that they would only be happy temporarily.
1. In affluent societies, people with more money are only somewhat happier than people who struggle for their basic needs.
2. People in rich countries are only a bit happier than people in poor countries.
3. A sudden rise in financial conditions makes people happy for only a temporary time.
However, people who live in poverty or in slums are also satisfied with their life.
Wealth is like health: Its utter absence can breed misery, yet having it is no guarantee of happiness.
Like the adaptation to brightness, volume, and touch, people adapt to income levels.
Adaptation Level Phenomenon
is the perception that we are relatively worse off than those we compare ourselves with.
With this knowledge,
what do you think a good predictor of happiness is for you or those that you know?
What makes you happy?
NOW. . .
Do you agree?
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
Spoilers are bad. As in knowing the end of a movie before you watch it.
"females are more tolerant of same-sex peers."
Mean people (especially men) make less money.
Is this suprising or reasonable?
Explain why it is true.
Some interesting RESEARCH
Spoilers are good. As in knowing the end of a movie before you watch it.
"males are more tolerant of same-sex peers."
Nice people (especially men) make less money.
Wait. . .
I think I got that wrong
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
1. Does his absenteeism signify illness, laziness, skipping or a stressful school atmosphere?
2. Was the horror of 9/11 the work of crazed evil people or ordinary people corrupted by life events?
Tries to explain how people determine the
cause of the behavior they observe.
It is either a....
• Situational Attribution
• Dispositional Attribution
Fundamental Attribution Error
We tend to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal dispositions when analyzing another's behavior
How do you guys view me?
Why do you believe that?
You probably attribute it to my personality rather than my profession.
Attitudes and Actions
A set of beliefs and feelings.
Advertising is ALL based on attitude formation.
Mere Exposure Effect
Attitude and Behavior
Do attitudes tell us about someone’s behavior?
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
People want to have consistent attitudes and behaviors….when they are not they experience dissonance (unpleasant tension).
Usually they will change their attitude.
You have a belief that cheating on tests is bad.
But you cheat on a test!!!
The teacher was really bad so in that class it is OK.
Norms of reciprocity
Conformity: How groups affect our behavior?
Social Facilitation Theory
If you are really good at something….or it is an easy task…you will perform BETTER in front of a group.
If it is a difficult task or you are not very good at it…you will perform WORSE in front of a group (social impairment).
Adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
person feels incompetent or insecure
the group has at least three people
the group is unanimous
one admires the group's status and attractiveness
What are ways in which we see conformity in our lives?
What are some groups that people conform to?
Normative social influence -- gain approval or avoid dissapproval
informational social influence -- accept others' opinions about reality
What are ways we search for approval or avoid dissapproval?
Can you think of any examples?
Social Loafing -- contributing less effort when working others than when working alone
This is due to the feeling of less responsibility
Now what happens when we are both aroused and anonymous because of a group?
having no self awareness or restraint in a group
In Group/Out Group
scapegoat theory -- theory that prejudiced behavior provides an outlet of anger and blame
just world phenomenon
Implicit personality theory- quick and automatic assumptions or beliefs that we form about other people and situations that are developed through schemas- mental organization of information
Self-serving bias is the tendency to attribute successful outcomes to internal reasons, and unsuccessful outcomes to situational factors
Self-efficacy (modesty) bias is the tendency to blame ourselves for our failures and credit our successes to external factors, or other people
Actor-observer discrepancy is the tendency to attribute, or justify, one’s own behavior to situational factors, while attributing the same exact type of behavior that happens to others to a dispositional attribution, for example their own fault, or that they deserved the outcome
Elaboration likelihood model- a model suggesting that attitudes can change through evaluation of the content of a persuasive message (central route) or by irrelevant persuasion cues (peripheral routes)
Central route of persuasion- the listener focuses on the content of the product
Peripheral route of persuasion- the listener focuses on the tone of person’s voice, their excitement- focuses on the salesperson’s pitch instead of the product
Hawthorne effect- workers at a factory worked harder when their boss was present
Obedience -- tendency to follow a person's orders or requests because he or she is seen as an authority figure
Ok now, everyone listen up for some instructions:
Why did you follow my instructions?
the unselfish regard, or caring welfare of others
aka diffusion of responsibility
the tendency for a bystander to be less likely to help if there are other people present
People of MORE likely to help another person:
If they are not in a hurry
In a good mood
Believe the victim has a similar background to them
Feeling guilty about something they did wrong earlier in teh day
See someone else helping
John Darley and Bibb Latane were interested in Kitty Genovese's murder and why no one helped.
group that you are a member of
group you do not belong to
Ingroup Bias--tendency to favor one's group through the belief that this group is always correct
out-group homogeneity effect -- the tendency to see members of other groups as similar in terms of their thoughts and actions
Example: if one member of group smokes, the rest of the group is perceived as smokers
Ethnocentrism -- belief that one's own culture or ethnic group is superior to others
Groupthink -- occurs when the desire to keep social harmony among the group becomes more important than personal opinion
Group Polarization -- an attitude or thought becomes stronger in the presence of a group of people
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy -- occurs when a person listens to the opinions of other people and then accepts these people's opinions resulting in that person now living up to the beliefs and expectations of other people
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members.
the tendency to recall faces of one’s own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect and the own-race bias.
: consists of intimacy and passion
: consists of intimacy and commitment
: ideal love, in which all three components are present
Love: a strong affection for another person due to kinship, personal ties, sexual attraction, admiration, or common interests
Sternberg’s three components of love:
: liking or having the desire for a relationship with another person physical attractiveness
: physical or geographical nearness people like people who are similar to themselves OR who are different from themselves (complementary)
reciprocity of liking
: tendency of people to like other people who like them in return
Attraction and Love
On a piece of paper:
-- Do NOT put your name on it
-- Answer this question:
"If you could be totally invisible for 24 hours and were completely assured that you would not be detected or held responsible for your actions, what would you do?"
-- fold your paper and hand it to me