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The Impact of European Expansion
Transcript of The Impact of European Expansion
Between 1500 and 1800, the Atlantic nations of Europe moved to all parts of the world. European expansion made a great impact on both the conquered and the conquerors.
Different regions experienced different effects of the expansion. The Native American civilizations were virtually destroyed. The ancient and political stuctures were ripped up and replace by European institutions, religion, language, and culture.
Slave trade negated any population growth both politically and socially. Leaders in West Africa would trade them for guns and gunpowder. A new civilization arose in Central and South America, known as Latin America. The spanish rulers would marry European and Native Americans, whose offspring is known as Mestizos. Mulattoes: African and Whites.
The ecology of the conquered areas were also affected by the expansion. This included rhe developement of large estate for raising cattle, wheat, sugar, sweet potatoes, and maize.
Missionaries would spread christianity to the Indians. They would encourage them to grow crops and taught to trade.
-Catholic Churches would be constructed.
-Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz was on of the best literary figures. she wrote poetry and taught education to women.
For Europeans, expansion brought the possibilities of obtaining land, riches, and social advancement. Many poor young men left Spain for Mexico, where they could get land to be "gentlemens". There was also economic effects. They looked for gold and silver, but lusted for the gold. Gold and silver, however, were only 2 of the products used for trade.
The Columbian Exchange was the trade between the Europeans and the Americas. Europeans were bringing horses, cattle, and wheat while the New World would bring potatoes, chocolate, corn, tomatoes, and tobacco. European's lifestyle was greatly affected by the trade. It increased the population, but arosed conflict in the Americas.
A New View
During the exploration, Europeans saw a different view of the world. Their explorations helped them create new maps that gave them more of a realistic visual of the world. These allowed them to represent the round surface of a sphere on a flat peice of paper. The most famous was the work of a cartographer, Gerardus Mercator.
Economy in the 16th Century
Inflation was a major economic problem in the 16th century. Price Revolution was a Europe-wide phenomenon, but affected different areas at different times. Foodstuffs were most subject to price increases, but wages failed to keep up. Wage earners saw their standard of living drop. Commercial and Industrial entrepreneurs benefited from this because of rising prices, etc.
Growth of Commercial Capitalism
The commercial expansion of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was made easier by new forms of commercial organization, especially the
. These made enormous profits and made technological innovations very successful. Amsterdam replaced Antwerp as the greatest commercial and banking center of Europe. European peasants faced increased rents, fees, and higher taxes.
Mercantilism is a set of economic tendencies that came to dominate economic practices. Therefore, states protected their economies by hoarding precious metals, implementing trade policies, promoting colonial development, etc.
Trade within Europe remained strong throughout the eighteenth century, but trade increased slightly while overseas boomed. This increase in overseas trade has led some historians to proclaim the emergence of a truly global economy in the century. Trade patterns now interlocked Europe, Africa, the East, and the Americas.