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ATB teen first aid

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by

HZI Education

on 21 January 2014

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Transcript of ATB teen first aid

rattle snakes
coral snakes
water moccasins
If a snake bites you...
remain calm
immobilize bite area & position it below your heart
remove all jewelry
clean and apply splint
DO NOT...
apply ice or tourniquet
cut wound or remove venom
drink caffeine or alcohol
try and capture the snake
Alternative Teen Break
First Aid
Big Thicket Map
Forest Safety
Animal Bites
if bite does not break skin, treat as minor wound

if bite produces punctures or bleeding, apply pressure and bandage
signs of infection include swelling, redness, pain, and oozing
rabies... see doctor
Bruises:
caused by breakage of blood vessels & pooling of blood beneath the skin
rest, elevate, apply ice, and take medicine for pain relief or swelling
if bruises develop for no reason, if bleeding begins elsewhere, or if headaches occur... see doctor
Corneal Abrasion:
the cornea is the clear protective "window" at the front of the eye

these can feel like a piece of something stuck in your eye and may cause headaches

rinse eye with saline solution (or water), blink to produce tears, or pull upper eyelid over lower

DO NOT rub or touch the eye, or try to remove the object
Cuts, Scrapes, and Splinters
get a tetanus shot
watch for signs of infection
stop the bleeding
get stitches for deep wounds
change the dressing
cover the wound
apply an antibiotic
clean the wound
Foreign Object in Ear
don't probe the ear with a tool; this could lead to further damage

remove the object if possible; duh.

be smart! Use gravity!

if you've got bugs...use oil to suffocate and flush them out
Foreign Object in Eye
always wash your hands first!!!

if alone... do your best to flush it out

if others are present... have someone examine eye to flush out item

DO NOT...
try and remove an embedded object
rub the eye (even though you want to rreeeaaallllyyyyy bad)
try to remove an object that prevents closure of the eye
Foreign Object in Skin
if projecting from skin...
wash hands; always!!
use tweezers to remove stuff
squeeze wound
wash again

if completely embedded...
again; wash hands
use sterile needle to break skin
tweeze items out
squeeze wound to promote bleeding
wash thoroughly
Harmful Plants
Poison Ivy
Poison Oak
Poison Sumac

signs and symptoms include redness, itching, swelling, and blisters

contact with contaminated clothing can also spread the rash
Snake Bites
Hypothermia
occurs when body cannot maintain normal temperature (body temp < 95 degrees)

shivering, coordination loss, fatigue, confusion, etc...

Treatment:
remove wet clothing
apply dry clothing
don't apply direct heat
NO ALCOHOL!
don't rub or massage
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Sprains
injury to the fibers of a ligament (connects bone to bone)

most usually occurs in ankles & knees

Treatment = R.I.C.E
Rest
Ice
Compress
Elevate

See doctor if...
unable to bear weight or numb
red streaks
re-injury
sever sprain
Sun Burn
symptoms show within hours of exposure (pain, redness, swelling, blistering)

Treatment steps...
cool bath or shower
aloe vera or other moisturizer
DO NOT pop blisters...that's gross
OTC pain reliever if necessary

Don't use home remedies (butter, egg whites, petroleum jelly)

If fever occurs see doctor
Prairie Safety
Blisters
try not to drain blisters

How to drain a blister...
clean hands
sterilize blister & needle
puncture near edge, allow to drain, & cover
cut away dead skin after a few days; re-cover
Heat Cramps
painful muscle spasms due to inadequate fluid intake

muscles most often affected include calves, arms, abdominal wall, & back

Treatment...
rest to cool down
clear juice or electrolyte sport- drink
gentle stretching/massaging
wait to resume exertions
Heat Exhaustion
worse than heat cramps; occurs after excessive exercise, heavy perspiration, inadequate intake of fluids/salts

most common signs/symptoms...
faintness/dizziness
nausea
low blood pressure
headache
fatigue
dark urine
treatment...
move into cooler place & elevate legs
loosen/remove clothing to cool
drink water & spray with water
monitor carefully
Heat Stroke
worse than heat exhaustion; caused by intense exertion in hot environments & inadequate fluid intake (temp > 105.1)

most common signs/symptoms...
rapid, shallow breathing
extreme blood pressure (high OR low)
cessation of sweating
change in mental status
headache/nausea/fainting
treatment...
move out of the sun & call 911
cool by damp sheets & direct air by fans or papers
drink cool water, if able
Insect Bites & Stings
Mild reactions...
move to safe area & remove stinger by scraping...NOT TWEEZERS!!
apply topical cream and cold pack
take an antihistamine or pain reliever

Severe reactions...
difficulty breathing/throat swelling
faintness/dizziness/confusion
increased heartbeat
hives
nausea/cramps/vomiting
What to do...
1. check for medication
2. loosen clothing & turn on side
3. Begin CPR if circulation ceases
Insect Bites: Chiggers
symptoms usually occur 1-3 hours after being bitten; these include...
red whelps &
SO MUCH ITCHING!!!!!! ...it's the worst

chiggers do not burrow into skin, so any methods to "suffocate" them don't actually work

focus on relieving itching & inflammation
calamine lotion (or other anti-itching creams)
oral antihistamines (Benadryl)
Insect Bites: Mosquitoes

signs of mosquito bites usually appear a few minutes to a few days after being bitten
these include...
puffy, white bump
hard, itchy, reddish-brown bump
swelling around bites
small blisters or dark bruise looking spots
some are more severe; these include...
lots of swelling/redness
low fever
hives
swollen lymph nodes
treatments include a topical anti-itch cream or an oral antihistamine
Insect Bites: Ticks
some ticks can transmit diseases like Lyme Disease or Rocky Mt. Spotted Fever

if bitten...
remove tick without crushing it
grasp close to skin and pull straight up
wash hands and area with soap & water

see doctor if you develop...
a rash/fever/stiff neck
muscle aches or joint inflammation
flu symptoms or photosensitivity

call 911 if you develop...
severe breathing or difficultly breathing
paralysis or chest pains (palpatations)
Foreign Object Inhaled
(Choking)
the universal sign for choking is hands clutched to the throat; other signals are...
inability to talk
difficult/noisy breathing
inability to cough
blue skin, lips, nail bed
loss of consciousness
Red Cross recommends "5-and-5" technique while American Heart Association teaches abdominal thrusts (...use what you've learned!)
abdominal thrusts can also be performed on yourself
you may have to clear the airway of an unconscious person
Foreign Object Swallowed
swallowed objects usually pass through digestive system without problem

some items can get lodged in esophagus, especially if it is pointed/sharp or a button-type battery

encourage coughing people to "Keep Coughing!!!" and don't interfere

if coughing ceases move on to procedures for choking

only try to remove an object from the airway if you can see it
Spider Bites
if bitten by a spider...
clean the site with soap & water
apply cool compress
elevate if on extremity
aspirin, acetaminophen, or antihistamines could be used (if approved)

Protocol for brown recluse or black widow
cleanse the wound
slow venom's spread
apply cool cloth
see doctor
Nose Bleeds
to take care of a nose bleed...
sit upright and lean forward (don't tilt your head up)
pinch your nostrils shut
don't pick or blow nose, or bend down for several hours after event
if re-bleeding occurs, blow forcefully and apply decongestant spray

see doctor if...
bleeding lasts >20mins
bleeding follows an accident
you experience frequent nose bleeds
have nose bleeds and are on blood thinning medication
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remove splinter with tweezers
Full transcript