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AP Biology Concepts Project

Project based learning on the topic of the cell cycle , mitosis, meiosis , dna replication , translation and transcription .

Jesusdaniel Barba

on 14 March 2013

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Transcript of AP Biology Concepts Project

CLASS PROJECT : LESSON 3A : Jesusdaniel Barba
Janet De la Cruz
Joanna Alfaro
Anthony Cerda Cell Cycle Mitosis Meiosis Genetic Disorders Binary Fission Stucture Of DNA Repication
Translation Famous Scientists
and Flow of Genetic Info Mr.
Period 3 Interphase The cell cycle is a complex set of stages with checkpoints that determine the fate of the cell Some cells go through repeated cell cycles
( Somatic Cells - Body cells)
Other cells ,rarely divide once they are formed
(vertebrate nerve , muscle cells ) The cell cycle consists of 4 different phases , g1 , Synthesis , g2 and Mitosis. { g1 and g2 are part of Interphase} Interphase , the nondividing phase, includes the cell growth and prepares for cell division Interphase , is 90% of the cells life while Mitosis is only 10% G1 Phase - First growth phase If a cell is signaled to remain undivided, instead of moving onto the S phase, it will leave the G1 phase and move into a state of dormancy called the G0 phase. G1 phase is important in the cell cycle because it determines whether a cell continues to division or to leave the cell cycle. - cells that move into this phase include nerve cells and muscle cells Synthesis Depending on levels of nutrients, cells must decide to enter the cell cycle or move into a non-dividing state known as G0 phase. The major event in S-phase is DNA replication. The goal of this process is to create exactly two identical semi-conserved chromosomes. G2 of Interphase G2 phase ends with the onset of prophase, the first phase of mitosis in which the cell’s chromatin condenses into chromosomes. Cells that move into g0 phase. Some cells, move into the g0 after growing to their full potential and have no need to reproduce DNA structure consists of a pattern of a sugar group and a phosphate group. Cells that stay in the g0 phase include neurons and muscle cells since there structures are different than that of other somatic cells , its more a liability to move into mitosis so they chose to not duplicate Last part of interphase , before entering mitosis Cyclins cyclin protiens , are used to catalize the cell to change into the next part of interphase or mitosis. 4 bases make up a DNA strand. These bases are: Cytosine (C), Thymine (T), Adenine (A) and Guanine (G). The full name of DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid and contains a double helix shape PROTIEN KINASES ( CYCLIN-DEPENDANT-KINASES CDKS) THAT HELP REGULATE THE CYCLE ARE ONLY ACTIVE ONCE attached SO A PARTICULAR CYLCIN Nucleotides and their stucture DNA and RNA stuctures n DNA and RNA, these bases form hydrogen bonds with their complementary purines. Thus, in DNA, the purines adenine (A) and guanine (G) pair up with the pyrimidines thymine (T) and cytosine (C), respectively. The Chromosome An exapmle of a cylcin-CDK complex is MPF (Maturation promoting factor) , this specific enzyme controls the progress through the G2 checkpoint into mitosis. A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and protein in cells. It is a single piece of coiled DNA that has many genes and other nucleotide sequences. RNA (Ribonucleic acid) plays roles in the coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
RNA, with DNA, makes nucleotides, proteins, and major macromolecules essential for life. Dr James Watson, along with Professor Francis Crick, Dr Rosalind Franklin (and Professor Maurice Wilkins), discovered the double helix structure of DNA. Central Dogma Replication The process in which DNA makes an exact copy of itself The process first takes place in genomes known as origins. From these origins, the DNA with the help of the enzyme ( DNA Helicase) becomes unzipped and becomes a "zipper" With the help of DNA (Polymerase) - enzyme that helps add new nucleotides to an open side of DNA ) and other proteins , Leading strand vs Lagging stand : the direction in which the DNA polymerase moves First helicase moves to unzip the DNA , when a DNA primer is added , it brings about the enzyme DNA polymerase in the leading strand (top in the photo) that moves in the 5'3 ( can only do that way (right to left) and adds the necessary nucleotides to the DNA. In the lagging strand (bottom stand) since it is moving in the opposite direction , it needs a primase to form the DNA polymerase and once that is established moves and adds the nucleotides in fragments. (a.k.a okazaki fragments) It moves in fragments , because if DNA helicase were to fully unzip the lagging strand the DNA may bend over and cause problems. Transcription DNA is copied into RNA. The stretch of DNA transcribed into an RNA molecule is called a transcription unit and encodes at least one gene. Meiosis is the cell division process for gametes ( sperm and ova) May be m(RNA) , t(RNA) or r(RNA In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase, and therefore the initiation of transcription, requires the presence of a core promoter sequence in the DNA. Promoters are regions of DNA that promote transcription Translation The process in which RNA makes Proteins In translation, messenger RNA (mRNA) produced by transcription is decoded by the ribosome to produce a specific amino acid chain, or polypeptide, that will later fold into an active protein. Codon = three bases on an mRNA molecule that code for a specific amino acid
Anti-codon = three bases on a tRNA molecule that match up with the codons (are complementary to them) on the mRNA. meiosis shuffles genes around to make different genetic combinations the outcome of meiosis is four haploid cells compared with the two diploid cells produced from mitosis. Meiosis begins with one diploid cell that has two copies of each chromosome (46) . One from the organism's mother and one from the father. The cell divides twice, Prophase Prometaphase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Condensed chromatin combine to form chromosomes with a centromere In metahase , the chromosomes line up to the cells equator known as the metaphase plate where they wait until the next phase of mitosis The nuclear membrane gets destroyed and the miotic spindles attach to the kinetichores This even alignment is due to the pulling powers by the opposing kinetochore microtubules; described as "tug of war" nuclear membrane reforms, nucleoli reappear, chromosomes rewind into chromatin The chromosomes have separated and move toward the poles. chromosomes break at centromeres and sister chromatids more to the opposite ends of the cell. Meiosis Simplified binary fission, is a form of asexual reproduction and cell division used by all prokaryotes, (bacteria and archaebacteria), Once the DNA has been tightly coiled and then replicated , The DNA is pulled to the separate poles of the bacterium as it increases size to prepare for splitting.
The growth of a new cell wall begins to separate the bacterium.
The new cell wall fully develops, resulting in the complete split of the bacterium.The new daughter cells have tightly coiled DNA, ribosomes, and plasmids. , Binary Fission Simplified tAY - sCHACHES DIESEASE Chromosomal Disorders and DNA disorders : Differences Down Syndrome XXX Chromosomes Sickle Cell Disease It's most common variant is known as infantile Tay–Sachs disease. It causes a progressive deterioration of nerve cells and of mental and physical abilities that commences around six months of age and usually results in death by the age of four.

The disease occurs when harmful quantities of cell membrane components known as gangliosides accumulate in the brain's nerve cells, eventually leading to the premature death of the cells

Tay–Sachs results from mutations in the HEXA gene on human chromosome 15, which encodes the alpha-subunit of beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase A, a lysosomal enzyme. It is a chromosomal condition caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21.

Down syndrome is the most common chromosome abnormality in humans.

It is typically associated with a delay in cognitive ability (mental retardation, or MR) and physical growth, and a particular set of facial characteristics. Trisomy 21 (triplication of the 21st chromosome) is caused by a meiotic nondisjunction event. With nondisjunction, a gamete (a sperm or egg cell) is produced with an extra copy of chromosome 21; the gamete thus has 24 chromosomes. When combined with a normal gamete from the other parent, the embryo now has 47 chromosomes, with three copies of chromosome 21.

Trisomy 21 is the cause of approximately 95% of observed Down syndromes, with 88% coming from nondisjunction in the maternal gamete and 8% coming from nondisjunction in the paternal gamete. Sickle cell disease is a group of disorders that affects hemoglobin, the molecule in red blood cells that delivers oxygen to cells throughout the body. People with this disorder have atypical hemoglobin molecules called hemoglobin S, which can distort red blood cells into a sickle, or crescent, shape.

Mutations in the HBB gene cause sickle cell disease.

Hemoglobin consists of four protein subunits, typically, two subunits called alpha-globin and two subunits called beta-globin. The HBB gene provides instructions for making beta-globin. Various versions of beta-globin result from different mutations in the HBB gene. A chromosomal disorder is based on chromosomal abnormalities rather than "bad" alleles and is a form of a genetic disorder, such as; Down syndrome (47, +21), Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY), and Turner syndrome (45, XO)

While on the other hand, a DNA (genetic) disorder does not have to concern the entire chromosome but can involve as little as a single base pair substitution (SNP) that in some way produces an unusual phenotype. Is a form of chromosomal variation characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome in each cell of a human female. The condition occurs only in females.

Triple X syndrome is not inherited, but usually occurs as an event during the formation of reproductive cells (ovum and sperm). For example, an oocyte or sperm cell may gain an extra copy of the X chromosome as a result of the non-disjunction. If one of these cells contributes to the genetic makeup of a child, the child will have an extra X chromosome in each of her cells.

Triple X syndrome can be diagnosed prenatally through amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling.
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