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Key Proponents of Educational Philosophies
Transcript of Key Proponents of Educational Philosophies
Greek philosopher and scientist, who shares with Plato and Socrates and distinction of being the most famous of ancient philosophers.
One of the most distinctive of Aristotle’s philosophic contributions was a new notion of causality. Each thing or event, he thought, has more than one “reason” that helps to explain what, and where it is.
Founder of Realism.
He invented formal logic.
He viewed virtue as the “
He saw a basic duality in human nature.
“Nature is a primary self-evident reality, a starting point of philosophizing.”
A contemporary realist focused his work on the value of education to “
live the good life
,” which consists of cultivating human potentialities to their highest level through self-determination, self-realization, and self-integration.
“The mind of the child at birth is similar to a blank sheet of paper upon which the world proceeds to write its impression.”
An English philosopher.
His major work: “
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
It describes his theory of how the mind functions in learning about the world.
“A good life was a life of pressure.”
“The primary qualities of experience exist in the physical world.”
“Mind is like a mirror receiving images from the physical world.”
JOHANN HENRICH PESTALOZZI
“Teaching should proceed from the known to the unknown (
Principle of Appreciation
), from concrete to the abstract; from the learner’s immediate lesson to the distant and remote.”
That the aim of education was the social regeneration of humanity.
JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU
• He viewed society as “
” and “
” and held that the furthering of society results in the continuing unhappiness of man. Rousseau’s essay, “Discourse on the Arts and Sciences” (1750), argued that the advancement of art and science had not been beneficial to mankind.
• He proposed that the progress of knowledge had made governments more powerful and had crushed individual liberty.
• Rousseau’s ideas about education have profoundly influenced modern educational theory. He minimizes the importance of book learning, and recommends that a child’s emotions should be educated before his reason. He placed a special emphasis on learning by experience.
• “Man is born free but everywhere is in chains.”
• “Let us return to nature.”
The Pragmatist / Experimentalist
• Greek Philosopher, one of the most creative and influential thinkers in Western philosophy.
• A disciple of Socrates.
• Plato’s writings were in dialogue form; philosophical ideas were advanced, discussed, and criticized in the context of a conversation or debate involving two or more persons. The earliest collection of Plato’s work includes 35 dialogues and 13 letters.
He described how the human mind achieves knowledge, and indicated what knowledge consist of by means of his works:
The Allegory of the Cave
This allegory suggests that most mankind dwell in the darkness of the cave. It is the function of education to lead men out of the cave into the world of shadow. Education is not simply a matter of putting knowledge into person’s soul that does not possess it any more than vision is putting sight into blind eyes.
Methods of the Divided Line
In the process of discovering true knowledge, the mind moves through four stages of development:
2.3 thinking, and
2.4 perfect intelligence
3. Forms of Ideas
It represents a serious attempt to explain the nature of existence.
• The Republic, Plato’s major political work, is concerned with the question of justice and therefore with the questions “what is a just state” and “who is a just individual?”
• “Every individual is born good, and is capable to sense, perceive and think.”
• A Greek philosopher and teacher.
• He believed that human nature leads people to act correctly and in agreement with knowledge.
• He felt that evil and wrong actions arise from ignorance and the failure to investigate why people act as they do.
• The surest way to attain reliable knowledge was through the practice of disciplined conversations, a method he called “dialectic”.
• “Knowledge and virtue were the same thing.”
(Philosophical Essays), published in 1637. The work contained four parts: an essay on geometry, another in optics, a third on meteors.
Discours de la method
(Discourse on Method), which described his philosophical speculations.
Meditations de Prima Philosophia
(Meditations on First Philosophy, 1642; revised 1642)
(The Principles of Philosophy, 1644)
• A French philosopher, scientist and mathematician.
• The father of modern philosophy.
Cognito, ergo sum, “
I think, therefore I am
.” From this postulate that a clear consciousness of his thinking proved his own existence, he argued the existence of god. God, according to Descartes’ philosophy, created two classes of substance that make up the whole of reality. One class was thinking substance, or minds, and the other was extended substances, or bodies.
• A Swiss-French philosopher, writer, political theorist, and self-taught composer.
• Rousseau contended that the man is essentially good, a “
” when in the state of nature, and that good people are made unhappy and corrupted by their experiences in society.
• One of the leaders of the movement known as pragmatism.
• An American and educator.
• Founder of pragmatism.
• Invented semiotics (
– “signs” “its objects” “interpretation”)
• He was one of the first philosophers to be influenced by psychology and the theory of evolution.
• His philosophy is called instrumentalism (all ideas are instruments, therefore, true ides are those that work best for attaining human goals).
• In every area of life, he called for experimenting and trying out new methods.
• As an educator, he opposed the traditional method of learning by memory under the authority of teachers.
CHARLES SANDERS PEIRCE
• His writings extended from about 1857 until near his death, a period of approximately 57 years. His published works run to about 12,000 printed pages and his known unpublished manuscripts run to about 80,000 hand written pages.
• The topics on which he wrote have an immense range, from mathematics and the physical sciences at one extreme, to economics and the social sciences at the other extreme.
• “Theory of knowledge is a theory of truth.”
• In William James’ view, derived from that of Peirce but with a different emphasis, pragmatism is in the first instance a theory of meaning.
• James advocated pragmatism as a means of clearing up precisely such confusions that, he believed, were ubiquitous in philosophy.
• In “
,” he calls pragmatism a “a vague ambitious, and overworked word” but offers three characterizations of it that he endorses.
• Reworks pragmatism
• Rorty has written “
Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature
” (1980), “
Consequences of Pragmatism
” (1982) “
Contingency, Irony and Solidarity.
” (1989) and other works.
ROBERT MAYNARD HUTCHINS
• From 1943 until his retirement in 1974 Hutchins was chairman of the
Board of Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica
and a director for Encyclopaedia Britannica , Inc. He was editor in chief of the 54-volume Great Books of the Western World (1952) and co-editor, from 1961, with Mortimer J. Adler, of an annual, The Great Ideas Today.
• An American educator who criticized over-specialization and sought to balance the college curriculum and to maintain the Western intellectual tradition.
• He argued about the purposes of higher education, deploring undue emphasis on non-academic pursuits and criticizing the tendency toward specialization and vocationalism.
MORTIMER JEROME ADLER
• He founded the Great Books of the Western World program and served as director of the Institute for Philosophical Research in 1952.
• Adler was born in New York City.
• Dropped out of high school at age of 14. Though he failed to complete the necessary physical education requirements for a bachelor’s degree, he stayed at the university and eventually was given a teaching position and was awarded a doctorate in philosophy.
• Born in Paris. A French Philosopher and one of the most influential Roman Catholic scholars of the 1900s.
1. Scientific knowledge of empirical reality;
2. Metaphysical knowledge of the principles of “being as such”
3. Suprarational knowledge, knowledge beyond the comprehension of human reason.
• He was a leader of neo-Thomism, a revival of the philosophical system developed by the medieval theologian Saint Thomas Aquinas. It attempted to reconcile faith and reason.
• His work: “The Degree of Knowledge”
Analyzed the structure of thought, identifying the three types of knowledge:
SOREN AABYE KIERKEGAARD
• A Danish philosopher and religious thinker, is considered one of the founders of existentialism.
• His Philosophy:
He held that religious faith is irrational. He argued that religious belief cannot be supported by rational argument, for true faith involves accepting what is “
He insisted on the absurdity or logical impossibility of the Christian belief that God who is infinite and immortal, was born as Jesus Christ, who was finite and mortal.
He bitterly criticized all attempts to make religion rational. He held that God wants us to obey Him, not to argue with Him.
He often attacked the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Denmark.
• He has greatly influenced religious thought, philosophy, and literature.
• His many books are concerned with the nature of religious faith, especially Christianity.
• He was a French existentialist philosopher who expressed his ideas in many novels, plays and short stories, as well as in theoretical works.
” (1938) He described the horror and mystery which a man experiences when he considers the unexplainable fact of a things’ existence.
Being and Nothingness
” (1943) His chief philosophical work about nature and forms of existence of being.
• He criticized Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of human behaviour and offered his own “
Existentialism and Humanism
” (1946) He defined existentialism as the doctrine that, for humankind, existence precedes essence.
• He believed that people are completely free, but are afraid to recognize this freedom and to accept full responsibility for their behaviour, which such freedom implies.
WILLIAM HEARD KILPATRICK
• An American educator, college president, and philosopher of education.
• Kilpatrick shared with Dewey the desire to have school curriculum reflect to some extent students’ interests and purposes and to place problem solving at the core of the educational process.
• His theory of learning emphasized what he called “purposely activity” engaged in by pupils as they worked on a variety of projects.
• A yearbook that stressed the need for formal education to focus on contemporary social issues and problems and to prepare children to participate intelligently in the formulation of ideas for social change.
• His methodological views were set forth in “
The Project Method
,” an essay that appeared in the “Teachers College Record in 1918 and was later expanded into a book entitled Foundations of Methods (1925)”
The Educational Frontier
JOHN DEWEY’S RELATIONSHIP TO PROGRESSVISM
• School would be a lot of hands-on learning and the progression of education would not end.
• He wanted students to learn through action and being involved in the processes that will get to the end product
• He wanted students to work on hands-on projects so learning would take place rather than memorization.
• Students would have to exercise their brain by problem solving and thinking critically, resulting in learning.
The Social Reconsrutionist
Education for the Emerging Age
,” he suggested that we give objectives or goals not for the sake of credits or even knowledge as such; we give them so that people of all races, creeds, classes and cultures may realize a more signifying life for themselves and for their fellows.
• Founder of social reconstructionism in reaction against the realist of the World War II.
• The championed the educational role transforming the existing culture and the need for the students to be able to establish useful goals.
• Brameld was best known for his theory of reconstructionism, which received widespread attention in educational circles.
• His writings include Ends and Means in Education (1950), Philosophies of Education in Cultural Perspective (1955), Toward a Reconstructed Philosophy of Education (1956), The Climatic Decades (1970), and Tourism as Cultural Learning.
GEORGE SYLVESTER COUNTS
• He further believed that teachers play a critical role in shaping culture.
• An American educator, George Counts recognized that education was the means of preparing people for creating this new social order.
• “Social values and institutions did not remain static, thus, education philosophies too mush be reconstructed to maintain their relevance.”
• The works of Courts provided the key issue for reconstructionism when he posed the question, “Dare the school build a new social order?”
PAULO REGLUS NEVES FREIRE
Status, power, and domination of the oppressor are not possible without the existence of the oppressed.
• He was a Brazilian whose experiences living in poverty led him to champion education and literacy as the vehicle for social change.
• Excerpts from “
Pedagogy of the Oppressed
Freire defines oppressors as those who deny personal autonomy of others by imposing a worldview paradigm onto the oppressed that denies them the power to direct their own lives.
There are many essential things the oppressed know that are just as essentials to life as the things the oppressors know. The oppressed must be made to understand that they are as valuable as the oppressors and they deserve to be treated humanly, with dignity and respect.
• Excerpts from “Pedagogy of the Oppressed”
The pedagogy of the oppressed has two stages.
Freire states that the act of oppression is an act of violence, so the violence of the oppressed is in reaction to the violence of the oppressors.Oppressors believe that to be, is to have; money is the measure of all things, and profit is the primary goal. The oppressors dehumanize themselves through their egoistic pursuit to have; they have so much that they lose themselves. They feel they have the right to have, while others do not have this right and do not deserve to have.
• He was known for his critique of modernization and the corrupting impact of institutions.
• Born in Vienna in 1926.
• Co-founder of the widely known and controversial
Center for Intercultural Documentation
(CIDOC) in Cuernavaca, Mexico and since 1964 he has directed research seminars on “Institutional Alternatives in a Technological Society,” with special focus on Latin America.
• Excerpts from “
Teaching may contribute to certain kinds of learning under certain circumstances. But most people acquire most of their knowledge outside school, and in school only insofar as school, in few countries, has become their place of confinement during an increasing part of their lives.
“Not only education but social reality itself has become schooled. It costs roughly the same to school both rich and poor in the same dependency.”
The pupil is thereby “schooled” to confuse teaching with learning, grade advancement with education, a diploma with competence, and fluency with the ability to say something new.
Universal education through schooling is not feasible. Neither new attitudes of teachers of toward their pupils nor the proliferation of educational hardware or software.
Why we must disestablish school?
The realist believed that education develops ones reasoning power. Education is process of learning how to acquire knowledge and putting that knowledge to practical use.
The idealist, on the other hand, shows great concern for the moral and spiritual values in the society. For them, education develops personality of the individual. Some of the idealist are Plato, Socrates and Rene Descartes.
The pragmatist/ experimentalist viewed education as child-centered. The individuals learn through experience. For them, problem-solving is necessary in the world of change. Some of the pragmatist/experimentalist like John Dewey, Charles Peirce, William James, and Richard Rorty view these concepts.
The Pragmatist/ Experimentalist
The perennialist, like Robert Hutchins, Mortimer Adler and Jacques Maritain assumed that man’s basic essential characteristics is his ability to reason. Only through reason can man understand existence and how he is required to live. In education, the task of the teacher is to help the child rise above nature and more toward the eternal destiny that awaits him. While pupil has the free will and can reject the truth and his teacher’s authority, he must be prepare to suffer the consequences that follow the dismissal of unchangeable and universal truths.
The existentialist methods focus on the individual. Learning is self-paced, self-directed, and includes a great deal of individual contact with the teacher, who relates to each student openly and honestly. Most of the existential concepts were found in the works of Soren Kierkegaard and Jean Paul Sartre.
The progressivists like William Heard Kilpatrick and John Dewy assumed that the world changes that in the universe that is not particularly conceived with him, man can rely only upon his ability to think straight. In education, this mean that the child must be taught to be independent, self-reliant thinker, learn to discipline himself, be responsible for the consequence of his behaviour.
Most of the reconstructionist literature is found in the works of Theodore Brameld, George Counts, Ivan Illich, and Paulo Freire. They assumed that the school has a role to play as an agent of planned change. The teachers play an important role in shaping culture, for if they are interested in the lives of children, the responsibility with which they are charged by the state, they must work boldly and without ceasing for a better social order.
The Social Reconstructionist