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11th Unit 2 Prezi

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Rebecca Rivera

on 26 November 2012

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Transcript of 11th Unit 2 Prezi

Essential Question: How have protest, rebellion, and free thinking shaped the American identity? How are our texts connected to last unit's texts? 1692: Witch Trials
1952: The Crucible 1692: Theocracy, British rule, strict adherence to Biblical law, fear and persecution rule

1952: McCarthyism, fear and persecution rule

THEN - Miller rebels using allegory in
The Crucible Reminder of last unit's essential question: How have fear and persecution shaped the American identity? 1775:
Patrick Henry's Address to the Virginia Congress Urges the Virginia Congress to rebel against
the British Invasion
(the Navy, not The Beatles). Give me liberty or give me death! civ·il dis·o·be·di·ence
Noun:The refusal to comply with certain laws
or to pay taxes and fines, as a peaceful form of political protest. 1849: Henry David Thoreau's "Civil Disobedience"
Angry with the motivations behind the Mexican-American War, Thoreau refuses to pay taxes and ends up spending a night in jail. "Civil Disobedience" urges Americans to consider what type of government they can respect, and to speak up and speak out when the government doesn't meet their standards. Remember: America is the only democratic government of it's kind at this point in history, and is still very much an experiment that may or may not endure the test of time. We know now that at the time '"Civil Disobedience" was written, the US was less than 20 years away from Civil War, where it came perilously close to destruction as a nation. Unit 2 Anchor Text
(the big text that brings it all together) Outliers: The Story of Success
by Malcolm Gladwell Gladwell explores WHY and HOW people become successful by looking at cultural and societal influences and not just individual choices. We will be using some of Gladwell's methods to consider:
What makes someone leave the country they know for the US?
What makes someone a 'free thinker' or an innovator? How does America produce someone like Thoreau, Bill Gates, Abraham Lincoln, Edgar Allen Poe, etc.
How literary movements such as Transcendentalism, Romanticism, and Gothicism changed the way we think. The Age of Faith
Colonial Period - Puritanism
1620-1750 Literary and Cultural Movement Timeline and Definitions The Age of Reason
Revolutionary Period Rationalism 1750-1800 The Age of Faith is characterized by:
Utilitarian, instructive, or religious writing
Sermons, diaries
Very plain language The Age of Reason is characterized by:
Logic and philosophy, not religion
The political ideals that shaped our nation
The Declaration of Independence, The Bill of Rights, The Constitution Romanticism
1800-1865 Romanticism is characterized by:
Focus on the individual (not group/society)
A sense of idealism or optimism
Focus on emotions and imagination (not reason)
Emphasis on the splendors of nature
Fascination with the supernatural (some writers) Transcendentalism
1840-1860 Intuition is superior to rationality
Self-reliance and individualism outweigh external authority and blind conformity
The natural world is a doorway to the spiritual or ideal world.
Everything in the world, including humans, is a reflection of the divine soul (Oversoul) Central Beliefs of Transcendentalists American Gothic
1830-1850 Characteristics of American Gothic writing:
Mysterious, unusual settings
Violent events
Grotesque characters
Terror or horror
Magic or the supernatural
Bizarre situations Short Story:
The Devil and Tom Walker
by Washington Irving Movie: The Devil and Daniel Webster Lecture:
The Legacy of Robert Johnson and The Devil at the Crossroads http://www.nowness.com/day/2011/5/4/1439/robert-johnson-devilish-detail According to legend, as a young man living on a plantation in rural Mississippi, Robert Johnson was branded with a burning desire to become a great blues musician. He was "instructed" to take his guitar to a crossroad near Dockery Plantation at midnight. There he was met by a large black man (the Devil) who took the guitar and tuned it. The "Devil" played a few songs and then returned the guitar to Johnson, giving him mastery of the instrument. This was in effect, a deal with the Devil mirroring the legend of Faust. In exchange for his soul, Robert Johnson was able to create the blues for which he became famous. http://www.robertjohnsonbluesfoundation.org/video/influences * Think of the Transcendentalists as Proto-Hippies. "Hey, dudes, let's go hang out in the woods and commune with the Oversoul" * Poster Child for American Gothicism: Edgar Allen Poe Henry David Thoreau Major Works: Civil Disobedience Walden Idealistic philosophy, spiritual position, and literary movement that advocates reliance on romantic intuition and moral human conscience
Belief that humans can intuitively transcend the limits of the senses and of logic to a plane of “higher truths”
Value spirituality (direct access to benevolent God, not organized religion or ritual), divinity of humanity, nature, intellectual pursuits, social justice
Roughly 1830s-1850s American Transcendentalism “That belief we term Transcendentalism . . . maintains that man has ideas, that come not through the five senses of the powers of reasoning, but are either the result of direct revelations from God, his immediate inspiration, or his immanent presence in the spiritual world.”

(Charles Mayo Ellis, “An Essay on Transcendentalism,” 1842) Spiritual Revival Ironic refiguring of Puritanism, without the theological dogma
Transcendentalists lonely explorers (pilgrims) outside society and convention
Trying to form new society based on metaphysical awareness
Trying to purify society by purifying hearts and minds
Nature a spiritual manifesto

Image: Ralph Waldo Emerson Transcendentalism as Spiritual Revival
Image: Niagara Falls, Thomas Cole, 1829 Image: Mont Blanc Arrives in America 1820s
Center around Concord, Massachusetts—kind of artists’ colony
“Transcendentalist Club” 1836—writing, reading, reform projects
Utopian communities—groups to escape American materialism Romanticism in America Belief that a heightened psychological state, an overwhelming experience of awe, reverence, and comprehension can be achieved when the soul is immersed in the grandeur of nature and a sense of transcendence from the everyday world.




The Sublime Nature is the key to self-awareness
Open yourself to nature & you may receive its gifts: a deeper, more mystical experience of life
Nature offers a kind of “grace”—“salvation” from mundane evil of everyday life
External world of nature actually reflects invisible, spiritual reality
Self-reliance: seek the truth in immediate perceptions of the world
Then you can reconcile body and soul (which is part of “Universal Soul” or “Oversoul,” source of all life/creator) Ralph Waldo Emerson Too intellectualized, too removed from direct experience of God
Extend and radicalize Unitarian beliefs in benevolent God, closeness of God and humanity
Bring these spiritual ideas to life
If Unitarians believe that truth comes only through empirical study and rationality . . .
Transcendentalists take that idea & add in romanticized mysticism—humankind capable of direct experience of the holy (Laurence Buell) Emerson’s Break from Unitarianism Emerson a Unitarian minister
Unitarianism (Christian denomination) rises in late 1700s; formalized by William Ellery Channing, early 1800s
Liberal church—broken from strict New England Congregationalism
Reject total depravity of humanity
Believe in perfectibility of humanity
Reject idea of “angry God”—focus on benevolent God
UNITY of God rather than TRINITY of Father, Son, Holy Spirit Roots in American Unitarianism Ironic refiguring of Puritanism, without the theological dogma
Transcendentalists lonely explorers (pilgrims) outside society and convention
Trying to form new society based on metaphysical awareness
Trying to purify society by purifying hearts and minds
Nature a spiritual manifesto

Transcendentalism as Spiritual Revival Nature Goal: Reclaim/redefine “culture”—bring it back to life
Prose poem—read both for what it says literally and what it suggests about what cannot be said clearly
Three underlying assumptions:
Primacy of the soul
Sufficiency of nature
Immediacy of God Reading Nature Easier to see Emerson clearly from a distance, but everything gets foggy if you get too close
Emerson: “Do not give me facts in the order of cause and effect, but drop one or two links in the chain, and give me with a cause, an effect two or three times removed.” Reading Nature Image: Christopher Pearse Cranch, parody of lines from Nature, 1838 The Transparent Eyeball Emerson a Unitarian minister
Unitarianism (Christian denomination) rises in late 1700s; formalized by William Ellery Channing, early 1800s
Liberal church—broken from strict New England Congregationalism
Reject total depravity of humanity
Believe in perfectibility of humanity
Reject idea of “angry God”—focus on benevolent God
UNITY of God rather than TRINITY of Father, Son, Holy Spirit Southern Gothic A style of writing practiced by many writers of the American South whose stories set in that region are characterized by grotesque, macabre, or fantastic incidents.
Noted Authors: Flannery O’Connor, Tennessee Williams, Truman Capote, William Faulkner, and Carson McCullers Flannery O'Connor From Milledgeville, GA
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