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Nina Husk

on 7 March 2014

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Transcript of Vaccination

Active & passive Immunity
Naturally acquired active immunity

- person is exposed to a live pathogen; disease is developed; becomes immune - result of the primary immune response

Artificially acquired active immunity

- induced by a vaccine (containing the antigen); vaccine stimulates a primary response against the antigen; no symptoms of the disease
Artificially acquired passive immunity

- a short-term immunization; injection of antibodies (gamma globulin) - not produced by the recipient's cells

Naturally acquired passive immunity

- during pregnancy; certain antibodies are passed from the maternal into the fetal bloodstream; immunologic tolerance for foreign antigens can be induced experimentally by creating conditions of high-zone tolerance,
i.e., by injecting large amounts of a foreign antigen into the host organism
, or low-zone tolerance,
(i.e., injecting small amounts of foreign antigen over long periods of time)
'vaccination' = 'immunization'
producing immunity against pathoges
(viruses, bacteria)

the administration of antigenic material = a vaccine - antigens in the vaccine cause the production of the antibodies needed to control the disease
the influenza vaccine, the HPV vaccine, and the chicken pox vaccine
the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases
the worldwide eradication of smallpox & the restriction of diseases such as polio, measles, and tetanus from much of the world
Vaccination vs Inoculation
umweakned live pathogens (to refer an immunization)
the placement of something that will grow or reproduce, and is most commonly used in respect of the introduction of a
serum, vaccine, or antigenic substance
into the body of a human or animal
to produce or boost immunity
to a specific disease

can also be used to refer to the communication of a disease to a living organism by transferring its causative agent into the organism, the implanting of microorganisms or infectious material into a culture medium.
As doctor Byron Plant explains:

"Vaccination is the more commonly used term, which actually consists of a 'safe' injection of a sample taken from a cow suffering from cowpox... Inoculation, a practice probably as old as the disease itself, is the injection of the variola virus taken from a pustule or scab of a smallpox sufferer into the superficial layers of the skin, commonly on the upper arm of the subject. Often inoculation was done 'arm to arm' or less effectively 'scab to arm'..."
Nina Húsková lll.B
Vaccines work with the immune system's ability to recognize and destroy foreign proteins (antigens) that it determines are "nonself"

Vaccines are also used to control animal pests by conferring temporary infertility
- scientists are using the same principle to help the body recognize antigens peculiar to cancer cells
- also applied in an experimental birth control vaccine that (tricks the immune system into believing that human chorionic gonadotropin /HCG/ is foreign, thus inactivating it and inducing menstruation even if fertilization has occurred
Adjuvants and preservatives

Vaccines typically contain one or more adjuvant, used to boost the immune response

Vaccines may also contain preservatives to prevent contamination with bacteria or fungi

Types of vaccines

1. An inactivated vaccine

2. In an attenuated vaccine

3. Virus-like particle vaccines

4. A subunit vaccine

& disadvantages
Side effects
Benefits or Risks ?
redness or swelling

bit irritable, unwell

a slight temperature

an allergic reaction

a rash or itching

an anaphylactic reaction

breathing difficulties


Compulsory vaccines:

5 in 1 (DTaP, IPV, HIB) – 3 doses
Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis/(=whooping cough) (DTaP) Poliomyelitis (IPV)
Haemophilus influenzae type B (HIB)
Hepatitis type B – 3 doses
Pneumococcus/(=Streptococcus pneumoniae) (PCV) – 3 doses
(MMR): Morbilli (measles), Mumps, Rubella – 1 dose

Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis/(=whooping cough) + 2 revactination ; Diphtheria, tetanus - revacctination each 15 years
Poliomyelitis (IPV) + 2 revacctination
Morbilli (measles), Mumps, Rubella - 1 revacctination
3rd-4th month:
5 in 1 (DTaP, IPV, HIB) – 1st dose:
• Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis/(=whooping cough) (DTaP) – 1st dose
• Poliomyelitis (IPV) – 1st dose
• Haemophilus influenzae type B (HIB) – 1st dose
Hepatitis type B – 1st dose
Pneumococcus/(=Streptococcus pneumoniae) (PCV) - 1st dose

4th-5th month
5 in 1 (DTaP, IPV, HIB) – 2nd dose:
• Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis/(=whooping cough) (DTaP)
• Poliomyelitis (IPV)
• Haemophilus influenzae type B (HIB)
Hepatitis type B – 2nd dose
Pneumococcus/(=Streptococcus pneumoniae) (PCV) – 2nd dose

10th-11th month
5 in 1 (DTaP, IPV, HIB) – 3rd dose:
• Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis/(=whooping cough) (DTaP)
• Poliomyelitis (IPV)
• Haemophilus influenzae type B (HIB)
Hepatitis type B – 3rd dose
Pneumococcus/(=Streptococcus pneumoniae) (PCV) – 3rd dose

14th-17th month
3 in 1 (MMR): Morbilli (measles), Mumps, Rubella – 1st dose

5 years
Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis/(=whooping cough) (DTaP) – 1st revaccination
Poliomyelitis (IPV) – 1st revaccination

10 years
3 in 1 (MMR): Morbilli (measles), Mumps, Rubella – revaccination

Around 12 years
Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis/(=whooping cough) (DTaP) – 2nd revaccination
Poliomyelitis (IPV) – 2nd revaccination

Diphtheria, tetanus – revaccination (each 15 years)

Reecomended vaccines:
Hepatitis A
Yellow fever
HPV (papillomavirus)
Rotavirus infection
1. Don't have a vaccination when ill
It's a FACT that you should postpone your child's jab if your child is ill and has a fever
2. Don't have a vaccination if there's allergy
It's a FACT that your child shouldn't have a vaccine if they've had a confirmed anaphylactic reaction(a severe allergic reaction) to a previous dose of the vaccine or an ingredient of it.
3. Don't have a 'live' vaccine if there's a weakend immune system

Facts & Myths
1. It is a MYTH that you have to avoid or delay your child's vaccination if they have a mild illness without a fever, such as a cough or cold or if they have an allergy such as asthma, hay fever,eczema.
2. It is a MYTH that you have to avoid or delay your baby's vaccinations if they were premature.
3. It is a MYTH that you have to avoid your baby's vaccinations if they have a history of febrile convulsions (convulsions related to fever) or epilepsy, or there's a family history of such conditions
4. It's a MYTH that vaccinations can overload a baby's immune system. In fact, only a tiny fraction of your baby's immune system is used by childhood vaccines and they come into far more bugs as part of daily life. This video explains why vaccines don't weaken your child's immune system.
4. It's a MYTH that homeopathy can be used as an alternative to vaccinations to protect children against potentially serious infections. In fact, there's no evidence that homeopathy can protect children against disease and
It's a MYTH that it is unsafe to take your baby swimming around the time of a vaccination. In fact, you can take your baby swimming at any time before and after their vaccinations.
Thank you for your attention !
Nina Húsková
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