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Article vs. Study

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Qualun Cooper

on 12 December 2014

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Transcript of Article vs. Study

Music in the workplace?
Abstract from Study
According to the Abstract, “this study measured the effect of music listening on state positive affect, work quality and time-on-task of computer information systems developers” (Lesiuk, p.173).
Methods
The methods of arriving at a conclusion are based on hypothetico-deductive reasoning.
What is the Article Saying?
The title of the article is “The Power of Music, Tapped in a Cubicle”. My guess is it’s to say that music holds some sort of magical powers that can only come from a cubicle meaning work related. The first two paragraphs paint a picture of a work-space that is not inviting and where music comes to play and sooth the savage beast. The writer of the article, Amisha Padnani, tries to connect the article with biology by throwing in a scientific term she received from Dr. Amit Sood, a Mayo Clinic physician.
Article vs. Study

I found the article to be more fluff than anything. The article led me to believe that the study has something to do with the effects and release of the chemical dopamine in your brain. The writer of the article didn’t really get any direct quotes from Dr. Lesiuk, who is a doctor of psychology. The writer quoted Dr. Sood who is a physician of integrative medicine with the Mayo Clinic. Two different ends of the scientific spectrum. I tried to find the quote the writer took from the article but was unsuccessful. Most of the article had nothing to do with the actual study. She only related the fact that Dr. Lesiuk found that older people are less likely to spend time listening to music while at work. She also mentioned that Dr. Lesiuk let people choose what they wanted to listen to. The article does try to relate the importance of how listening to music can affect your mood while working. My conclusion of the study is it didnt prove much of anything.
Future Research?
How the vibrations of sound affect the release of dopamine when it comes to music?
Does it depend on what you listen to, your musical taste, how high or low the frequencies are received by the brain?
Which genre is best suited for the release of dopamine?
Does tonality of music( happy sound, sad sound) have some affect on the reward area in the brain?
Does the positive affect better for those who use less or more spatial-temporal reasoning when it comes to work?
Dopamine?
Dopamine
– a neurotransmitter that helps control the brain’s reward and pleasure centers. Dopamine also helps regulate movement and emotional responses, and it enables us not only to see rewards, but to take action to move toward them. Dopamine deficiency results in Parkinson’s disease, and people with low dopamine activity may be more prone to addiction. The presence of a certain kind of dopamine receptor is also associated with sensation-seeking people, more commonly known as “risk takers”.
http://www.psychologytoday.com/basics/dopamine

The writer of the article uses the research of Dr. Teresa Lesiuk, assistant music therapy professor at University of Miami.
The writer talks on who the study involves (information technology specialists)
What the research from the doctor (according to the article) was:
1. Those who listened to music completed their tasks more quickly and came up with better ideas than those who didn’t, because the music improved their mood.
2. Personal choice of music was important
3. Those who were moderately skilled at their jobs benefited the most, while experts saw little or no effect
4. Novices regarded the music as distracting
5. The older you are the less time you spend listening to music at work.

The article gives the other side of how listening to music with headphones all day can present a negative view of one towards their employer.

The writer takes statements from Dr. Sood and two random individuals who seem to have hectic work spaces (or so you would think). One is Dan Rubin, a columnist at The Philadelphia Inquirer and Andrew Enders, 28 year old lawyer.

Dopamine in the reward area on the brain
Questions?
Where is the missing link between the release of dopamine and sound waves (music)?
How much of a frequency is needed to send a signal to the brain to release the dopamine?
Which music helps release the most dopamine in the brain, if any?
What were the age ranges of those who participated in the study?
Did the different choices of music have different effects on those who participated?
How big were the task given to those who participated?
How many days, hours, did the study take to draw a conclusion?
Research
The study was published March 30, 2005, in the article of
Psychology of Music
.
Research was partly supported by the
Rosevear Fund
. This is just a fund from a guy who was on the music faculty at the University of Toronto. He died.
At the time of the study, Teresa Lesiuk was an assistant Professor of Music Therapy at University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada. (The article has her in Miami)

The history of Lesiuk’s research is to study the role of music in high stress occupations.

Background
Similar Research?
Mozart Effect
According to Wiki, “ A set of research results indicating that listening to Mozart’s music may induce a short-term improvement on the performance of certain kinds of mental tasks known as ‘spatial-temporal reasoning’”. The hypothesis to this study was listening to Mozart made you smarter. Also, exposure to classical music at an early age had great effects on mental development. This study focused on one ‘kind’ of musical style.
Spatial - temporal reasoning?
Has some connection with visual thinking.

According to wiki, spatial-temporal reasoning is “the ability to visualize special patterns and mentally manipulate them over a time-ordered sequence of spatial transformations.”

Spatial-temporal reasoning is prominent among visual thinkers as well as among kinesthetic learners (those who learn through movement, physical patterning and doing) and logical thinkers (mathematical thinkers who think in patterns and systems) who may not be strong visual thinkers at all.

Key Term: State Positive Affect
State Positive Affect?
The Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development defines positive affect referring to the extent to which an individual subjectively experiences positive moods such as joy, interest, and alertness.

Relating Evidence between studies
I am not sure but my guess would be that Lesiuk took those who use spatial-temporal reasoning and tried to see if the music they personally listen to effect or differ between listening to Mozart. Is it really Mozart’s music or ones preference? Seems like Lesiuk’s study is focused on the mood and if that person’s mood inhibits their ability to perform to their best level.
Instrumental tools used in this study were:
Participants
Research Design
Measure
THE END
Participants
• 4 different companies, in two Canadian cities of Computer information systems developers (those who use spatial –temporal reasoning)
• M= 41, F= 15
• Ages from 19 to 55 (M= 32.8 years)
• Work experience is 6 months to 20 years (M= 6.24 years)
• Formal music educational experience from 0 to 15 years (M= 1.95 years)
• Daily music listening time from no time to nearly entire day(M= 1.72 hours) (SD = 2.11 hours)

Research Design
The article states that, the study is a quasi-experimental field study utilizing an interrupted time series with removed treatment design.

What is a
quasi-experimental field study
?
Wiki explains the definition as “an empirical study used to estimate the causal impact of an intervention on its target population.” From our class we know that empiricist base things off of cause and effect. More or less the cause.
https://explorable.com/quasi-experimental-design
The website above explains quasi-experimental design is used in the social sciences and psychology.

Characteristics are they resemble quantitative and qualitative experiments, depends on the validity, involves selecting groups, upon which a variable is tested without any random pre-selection processes.

Advantages
are they could be useful in generating results for general trends, allow some sort of statistical analysis to take place, and they do reduce the time and resources needed for experimentation.

Disadvantages
are without proper randomization, statistical test can be meaningless.
Variables used were State Positive Affect, quality of work and time on task.

Measures
The variables were measured twice a week, two days apart, with days alternated throughout the five weeks. Participants had to keep a daily music log for each day of weeks 2, 3, and 5. They recorded their state mood before listening, time spent listening, and music selections.
The methods of arriving at a conclusion are based on
hypothetico-deductive reasoning.

Findings suggest that the negative effects of removing the music are found in lowered state positive mood responses, slightly lowered quality of work, and more time spent on tasks than originally intended.
Group C reflected non-music listening and experienced more stress than any other group. At first, the group’s initial pre to post listening state mood responses showed a decrease in positive affect. According to Lesiuk,” that particular type of response would not be helpful in any work environment” (Lesiuk, p.188).

Challenges with study
Problems Understanding?
The true or false questionnaire was developed by Watson and Tellegen (1985)
I’m not sure how they are coming up with the mathematical variables formulas.

Challenges to the study were: (all of this is in the study)
• The companies had their own work ‘culture’ and a control group would only serve as a comparison to another work ‘culture’.
• There was an absence of a guided listening framework for the developers. To me this means there were gaps in the study process or how to gather information. They missed a step or two.
• Sabotage to the work of the study. Participants were giving the researcher what they thought she wanted instead of actually participating and following the guidelines. Less focus on the music and more reports on thoughts and feelings about listening to music, about work stresses and even about the study itself. The companies seemed to report responses that in the end described their work culture.
• There was not a random assignment of companies for this study.

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