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Transcript of nancy chodorow
CHODOROW FEMINIST SOCIOLOGIST
Full name: Nancy Julia Chodorow
Born: January 20, 1944
Graduated: Radcliffe College 1966
Worked as a professor in the University of California
Part of the International Psychoanalytical Association
Academic Career 1973: Wellesley College
1974-1986: Santa Cruz
1975: Earned PhD
Awards Chodorow is now at the University of California at Berkeley, and she continues her controversial theories that psychoanalysis and feminism have generated (Rhode, 1990). Feminism and
the method and theory directed towards the investigation and understanding of how we develop and experience unconscious fantasies and how we construct and reconstruct our felt past in the present
apposite source of feminist theorizing
(Freud) From the myth of Oedipus Rex by Sophocles, who is the son of King Laius and Queen Jocasta of Thebes
Attraction and rivalry
son’s feelings towards his mother and anger towards his father
(Chodorow) distinguished from a mother and identified with the father (shift in role identification)
“Personality is a result of a boy or girl’s social relational experiences from earliest infancy.”
Girls are closer to their mother than boys
Boys surrender their mother as a primary love- object and distance themselves from her.
Must undergo differentiation process
Masculinity is a precarious achievement founded on the repression of qualities deemed feminine.
Femininity is characterized by flexible boundaries, is founded on relation and connection and is with a comparatively secure sense of gender identity.
COMPLEX feminine Oedipus attitude
came from a Greek myth
coined by Carl Jung in 1913
explains the theory of Sigmund Freud’s psychosexual development of females
(NANCY CHODOROW) Continuity in the role identification
Argues that young girls remain mother- identified even after Oedipus complex
Female identity is a direct process
OF MOTHER She considers the ways in which the women’s roles have changed radically, evolving and over previous decades
in giving insight into
the foundations of gender identity
Books •The Reproduction of Mothering
•Feminism and Psychoanalytic Theory
cited her theories based on the works of Sigmund Freud, Karen Horney and Melanie Klein
we are born bisexual and that the child's mother is its first sexual object according to Freud’s assertion
child forms its ego in reaction to the dominating figure of the mother according to Melanie and Karen Horney son identifies with his father
occurs during the phallic stage from 3-5 years old
Revolves around a child’s wish to possess the parent of the opposite sex while, simultaneously, wishing to eliminate the parent of the same sex who is perceived as a rival. “The nature and quality of the social relationships that the child experiences are unconsciously appropriated, internalised and organised by him/her and come to constitute his/her personality.”
The child experiences a oneness with its mother more complications with male development
internally the boy tries to reject his mother and deny his attachment by identifying with a "cultural stereotype of the masculine role"
Father- mother- child triad A model “drawn solely from the universality of sex differences" is unconvincing.
The crucial factor in socialization of both genders is the role played by the mother. daughter’s feeling towards her father and anger towards her mother
daughter identifies herself through her mother
occurs during the analogous stage from 3-5 years old Jessie Bernard Award of Sociologists for Women in Society for the book The Reproduction of Mothering and which Contemporary Sociology listed in the 1990's among the ten most important books of the past twenty-five years Distinguished Contribution to Women and Psychoanalysis Award from the American Psychological Association
L. Bryce Boyer Prize of the Society for Psychological Anthropology for her book The Power of Feelings: Personal Meaning in Psychoanalysis, Gender, and Culture
Femininities, Masculinities, Sexualities: Freud and Beyond
The Power of Feelings : Personal Meaning in Psychoanalysis, Gender, and Culture.
they both base their theory around the concept of the Oedipal crisis as developed by Freud
mothering as a production of ‘socially stimulated psychological process’ significance of child’s first identification with its mother identity formation is seen as a process of socialization a girl cannot and does not completely reject her mother in favour for men and the development of the gender identity with the mother is on going
mothering as a production of ‘socially stimulated psychological process’
more on the absence of a father and how a boy\'s gender identification is developed as a result
both girls and boys will feel hostility towards the mother for not fulfilling their oral needs, ‘feeding them at the breast, causing arousal and then forbidding their sexual desires’ it is a crucial stage for males
the development during the Oedipal stage is fundamentally different for boys and girls
significance of child’s first identification with its mother Chodorow seems to agree to the basis of Freud's theories, but argues that feminists should make revisions for a variety of reasons this maybe explains the differing stress placed upon the authority of the mother or father in the parenting role centers on the idea of the nuclear family being the general environment for child rearing Father encourages the child in moving towards the appropriate gender role
The girl then becomes a separate individual through ‘secondary identification’
Girls do not give up the pre-oedipal relationship completely, she does not completely reject her mother in favour of men but continues her relationship of attachment to her.
Women are inherently heterosexual. She continues to refer to the mother's mothering role in the family as more crucial than the fathers, in the child’s development of gender identity