Transcript of Technological Advances
n 1817, in central Germany, a new kind of bike was created by Baron Karl von Drais. The bicycle was wooden with two wheels, a seat and handle bars. It was the fastest thing of its time with speeds of 10 miles per hour. The problem with the bicycle was that it had no pedals. One would use their feet and push while the wheels rolled on the ground. Drais' machine was patented on the 12th of January 1818 in Baden. In 1824, Joseph Aspdin invented Portland cement. This was created by burning ground limestone and clay together. Other cements were previously used, but this one was proven to be the strongest and most efficient out of all. As a result, this cement became the dominant cement used in concrete production. The first large use of this invention was in a tunnel under the Thames River in 1828 for engineering use. It later was manufactured in the U.S. at a plant in Pennsylvania to be used for the building of roads, construction, and concrete. Braille, a system of raised dots that is read with the fingers, has historically been embossed on paper. The system was invented by Louis Braille of France in the early 1800s. It is a worldwide system used by blind and partially sighted people for reading and writing. Louis was blind and still managed to develop this system when he was only twelve years old. In 1826, British man James Sharp invented the gas burning stove. Early gas stoves were not very safe. They had to be lit with a match and if the door was closed and the gas was left on, the gas could fill the oven chamber and spread throughout the room, and trigger an explosion. However, more people found this stove as a convenience because previous models were not as small and practical. They were used mainly by women to cook. His invention was the basic design and element that lead into smaller better sized gas stoves to fit in properly with the rest of household kitchen furniture. Thomas Davenport, inventor of the electric motor, was a self-educated blacksmith with a passion for reading. In order to build this motor, he spent much of his time studying electricity, magnetism, and how the inventions that involved these two elements functioned and performed. Thanks to his very important invention, transportation has evolved in society and has produced machines such as cars. Cars made it easier to quickly transport goods as well as people themselves. Davenport’s electric car was not yet efficient because his batteries were not rechargeable. However, years later the electric car was improved by many inventors. As Earth's population increased, technology was required to increase food production. Having observed that crops were more productive where the soil was loosened, people reasoned that the soil needed to be tilled before seeding. In 1836, blacksmith John Deere created a device called the plow to serve this purpose. John lived in Illinois where the soil was heavy, sticky, and covered with tall prairie grass. It required extremely hard work in order to clear the land for farming. He took saw blade steel and wrought iron then welded and shaped them to form the steel plow. The electric telegraph is a now outdated communication system that transmitted electric signals over wires from location to location that translated into a message. Samuel F.B. Morse used pulses of current to deflect an electromagnet, which moved a marker to produce written codes on a strip of paper - the invention of Morse Code. The following year, the device was modified to emboss the paper with dots and dashes. This can be compared to what we now call a text message, though back then you had to encrypt the message in order to translate the dashes and dots into the English alphabet. Sir William Robert Grove was known as the “Father of the Fuel Cell.” He based his experiment on the fact that sending an electric current through water splits the water (H2O) into its component parts of hydrogen and oxygen. He hypothesized that by reversing the procedure you could produce electricity and water. So, Grove tried reversing the reaction - combining hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity and water. He created a primitive fuel cell and called it a gas voltaic battery. After experimenting with his new invention, Grove proved his hypothesis. This was the basis of a simple fuel cell. Barthelemy Thimonnier spent most of his days sewing by hand. His work was slow and tedious, so he began to think if he could create a mechanical sewing device. Thimonnier's machine used only one thread and a hooked needle that made the same chain stitch used with embroidery. It was indeed much easier and faster than hand stitching garments and fabrics. His early sewing machine was designed and manufactured in 1841 to mass-produce uniforms for the French Army, but rioting tailors destroyed the machines. The inventor was almost killed by an enraged group of French tailors who burnt down his garment factory because they feared unemployment as a result of his new invention. Many of the technical difficulties which had faced those experimenting with blood transfusion were removed after 1853 by the invention of the hypodermic syringe, with its hollow pointed needle. Credit for the evolution of this universally useful appliance is usually given to Doctor Alexander Wood, who was appointed Secretary of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh in 1850. Doctor Wood had been experimenting with a hollow needle for the administration of drugs. At about the same time, Charles Gabriel Pravaz of Lyon was making a similar syringe which quickly came into use in many surgeries under the name of 'The Pravaz Syringe'. Pravas' syringe had a piston which was driven by a screw so he could supply exact dosages. Wood used his to inject morphine as a painkiller for neuralgic pains while Pravaz used his for the treatment of aneurysms. Full transcript
Advances Bicycle – 1818- Baron Karl de Drais- Germany
Bicycle – 1818- Baron Karl de Drais- Germany
Cement- 1824- Joseph Aspdin – England Braille System- 1824- Louis Braille- France
Gas Stove- 1826- James Sharp- UK Electric Motor- 1834- Thomas Davenport- U.S. Steel Plow- 1836- John Deere- U.S. Morse Code- 1838- Samuel F.B. Morse- U.S.
Fuel Cell- 1839 – William R. Grove – UK Sewing Machine -1841- Barthelemy Thimonnier- France Hypodermic Syringe- 1853- Charles Gabriel Pravaz and Dr. Alexander Wood - France.