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Speaking to Persuade
Transcript of Speaking to Persuade
Speaking to Persuade What is "Persuasive Speaking"? Any time you try to convince someone to think, believe, or act as you want them to, you are speaking to persuade. A persuasive speech:
establishes a fact
changes a belief
moves an audience to act on a policy Preparing a Persuasive Speech:
Understanding the types of Persuasion As a speaker, your goal is to support your viewpoint so that your audience will adopt it. Persuasive speeches deal with three types of questions that can be answered in more than one way:
questions of fact
questions of belief
questions of policy Concerns statements that can either be seen as true or false You offer proof to support a statement of fact, but the audience determines whether you have convincingly proved that the statement of fact is true. Questions of Fact Questions of Belief Focuses on what is right or wrong, good or bad, best or worst, moral or immoral While you cannot prove that a belief is true or false, you can supply convincing information to justify a belief. Questions of Policy Focuses on a particular action You try to convince the audience to act on some policy or to agree that some policy should be changed. Preparing a Persuasive Speech:
Choosing and Limiting a Topic A good persuasive speech is one that:
you feel strongly about
other people may have different views on Preparing a Persuasive Speech:
Writing your Thesis Statement Once you have chosen your topic, your next step is to state your specific purpose. This statement will be the basis of your thesis statement, a complete sentence that can state any one of the of the following three items:
the fact that you want to establish
the belief that you want to establish or change
the policy that you want your audience to support or act on Fact: Ann Welch is qualified for the job of senior class president.
Belief: Ann Welch is the best candidate for senior class president.
Policy: You should vote for Ann Welch for senior class president. Examples Using Persuasive Techniques:
Applying Logical Reasoning This can also be known as the persuasive strategy Logos. Logos provides the evidence and statistics you need to provide support for your topic. It will be the "straight facts". Pathos, Logos, & Ethos
Pathos: an appeal to emotion
Logos: an appeal to logic or reason
Ethos: an appeal to credibility or character Persuasive Techniques Using Persuasive Techniques:
Developing Emotional Appeals Also known as Pathos, this will attempt to evoke an emotional response in your audience. It can be a positive emotion, such as happiness, or a negative emotion such as pain. Using Persuasive Techniques:
Establishing your Credibility Lastly, this is known as Ethos. It will try to convince you that something is more reliable, honest, and credible. Ethos often involves statistics from reliable experts or celebrities. Using Persuasive Techniques:
Meeting Ethical Standards Adapting your Persuasive Speech to your Audience Organizing your Speech Organizing your Speech:
Using a Deductive Approach Organizing your Speech:
Using an Inductive Approach Delivering your Speech Convincingly:
Using Visual Materials Delivering your Speech Convincingly:
Responding to Feedback In an inductive approach, you begin with your reasons and lead up to your thesis. When you organize your material inductively, you try to move your audience from the specific to the general. Three types of inductive approaches are:
the criteria-satisfaction method
the negative method
the Monroe motivated sequence Criteria-Satisfaction Method Negative Method Monroe Motivated Sequence Statement-of-Reasons Method Problem-Solution Method Comparative Advantage Method Adapting to a Favorable Audience Adapting to a Neutral Audience Adapting to an Apathetic Audience Adapting to a Hostile Audience Ethical Standards are society's guidelines for right, just, and moral behavior. Violating ethical standards can destroy a speaker's credibility. It is unethical for public speakers:
to lie or deceive
to engage in name-calling
to attack a person or idea without giving evidence
to deny the opposition the right to reply
If you try to manipulate your audience or follow any other unethical practices, you will probably fail to achieve your goal. Once your listeners discover you have deceived them, you will lose your credibility and become totally ineffective. Before you decide how to organize your speech, you should consider two things. One, the possible makeup of your audience, and two, how best to adapt your speech to that particular audience.With mainly the persuasive speech, adapting your speech so that it both reaches and moves your audience is crucial to your success. Although the individual members of any audience may have many different attitudes about a topic, an audience as a whole can be classified as:
mostly hostile A favorable audience is one in which the majority of the listeners agree, from slightly to completely, with your thesis. A neutral audience is one in which the majority of the listeners have not reached a decision about your thesis. An apathetic audience is one in which the majority of the listeners have no interest in your thesis. A hostile audience is one in which the majority of the listeners oppose your thesis. For the most part, the way you organize your speech will be guided by your impression of your audience's attitude and by the nature of your material. Persuasive speeches are organized according to two approaches: deductive and inductive. Deductive Approach Thesis Supporting Reason Supporting Reason Supporting Reason Supporting Reason Supporting Reason Supporting Reason Thesis Inductive Approach With the Inductive Approach, a number of reasons are stated which then build to the statement of the thesis. With the Deductive Approach, the thesis is stated first and then reasons are presented that support the thesis. In a deductive approach, you begin with your thesis and then present reasons to support it. When you organize your material deductively, you try to move your audience from the general to the specific. Three types of deductive approaches are:
the statement-of-reasons method
the problem-solution method
the comparative advantage method The statement-of-reason method is the classic deductive approach in which the thesis is stated directly and followed by supporting reasons. With the problem-solution method, you first present a problem and then offer at least one possible solution for that problem. The comparative advantage method presents each reason as a benefit to the audience. The criteria-satisfaction method has the purpose of getting the audience to agree to the soundness of certain criteria, or standards. With the negative method, you show that no option other than the one you propose is acceptable. The Monroe motivated sequence, developed by professor Alan H. Monroe, is based on the premise that in order to convince an audience to act, a speaker must:
draw attention to the problem
show a need for some action
outline a plan that will satisfy the need
help the audience visualize the benefits of that plan of action
suggest a specific action that puts the plan into practice Since an audience can grasp information better by seeing and hearing it than by hearing it alone, look for opportunities to use visual materials in your persuasive speech. While you speak, your audience will be giving you subtle (and at times, not-so subtle) feedback that will help you determine how you are doing. Be sure to respond to that feedback.