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PSYC190 Perception & Cognition Presentation

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Sammie Cho

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Transcript of PSYC190 Perception & Cognition Presentation

Sensation, Perception, & Cognition Monica Chipres
Sammie Cho History of Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive Psychology deals with the questions of how an organism gathers, processes, stores, and uses information about the world What is Cognitive Psychology? Cognition refers to the process of knowing Locke, Hume, and Mill were proponents of the empiricist view
Descartes and Kant sided with the nativists Early History Interest can be traced as far back to the ancient Greeks Philosophical in nature Debate over empiricists vs. nativists Vision No attempts to apply scientific method The Ongoing Philosophical Debate Other sciences progressed rapidly as cognitive science was seemingly overlooked Difficult to grasp how our mind could be scientifically analyzed How does it work? George Berkeley
An Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision (1709)
A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (1710) 18th Century Hearing David Hume
Treatise of Human Nature (1739)
The founding document of Cognitive Science
Desire rather than reason governed human behavior Object, idea, or experience as being more than the sum of its parts
Proximity: Group close objects together
Closure: Ignore gaps & fill them in based on our experiences
Similarity: Group items that are similar
Simplicity: See figures as simplistically as possible
Continuation: See lines or shapes as continuing through other forms
Figure & Ground: Separate items as foreground, ground, or background
Context: Information/stimuli is processed based on the context More on Taste Linda Bartoshuk:
-people vary in sensitivity to taste because of taste buds
-odor perception depends on receptor response to chemicals Touch Ernst Weber & Gustav Fechner:
-Weber-Fechner law: relationship between stimulus intensity and sensation intensity Trichromatic Theory Thomas Young & Herman von Helmholtz -Eye contains special (short, medium, long wavelength cone) receptors sensitive to wavelengths associated with red, green, & blue
-Eye can see all colors by color mixing "Young-Helmholtz Theory of Color Vision" Proposed by German Psychologists in 1920s;
Kohler, Koffa, Wertheimer, & more
Group close objects together How do we recognize objects? Naïve Template Theory visual system recognizes objects by matching the neural representation of the image with a stored representation of the same “shape” in the brain; "lock & key" Recognition by Components Model (Biederman) Recognizing an object are recognized by the identities and relationships of their component parts; Geons Multiple Recognition "Committees" Superordinate level <= (Info) Entry level => Subordinate level Human Visual System Retina LGN (Lateral Geniculate Nucleus) Primary Visual Cortex (V1) Ventral stream: "what"
Dorsal: "Where" Two-Stream Hypothesis: Ungerleider & Mishkin ('82) Sweet, Bitter, Sour, Salty, Unami

Learned Taste Aversion Agnosia:
Apperceptive:
Inability to group parts to name objects
Associative:
"Recognition without meaning" When things go wrong... Behaviorism- 1930's -1960's
-Pavlov, Skinner, Watson Organisms tend to misbehave... Early Influences on Cognition
Linguistics: shifts from behaviorist accounts to theories emphasizing structures underlying comprehension
-Noam Chomsky, Syntactic Structures -Computer metaphor: Piaget's emphasis of cognitive structures Technology & Cognitive Psychology
-Atkinson & Shiffrin Model (1968) Connectionist Model -McClelland & Rumelhart (1981) Psychology in Germany Wilhem Wundt
first psychology laboratory (1879)
cognitive approach to psychology
experiment with introspection Psychology in America at odds with introspection and behaviorism McGurk Effect Supertaster/Undertaster What is a sound? Taste Height: A sound quality corresponding to the level of pitch; related to frequency


Chroma: A sound quality shared by tones that have the same octave interval Components of Sound http://bbamusic.wikispaces.com/Three+Components+of+Sound Pitch, Intensity, Timbre Helmholtz Resonator -Identify various frequencies or pitches of the pure sine wave components of complex sounds containing multiple tones

-Used in subwoofers, motorcycle engines, instruments What is consciousness? Olfaction James Mill (1773-1836) John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) "Only in the last 100 years has it been realized that human cognition could be the subject of scientific study rather than philosophical speculation" (Anderson, 1995). 19th Century Hermann Helmholtz (1821-1894)
-Theory of Unconscious Inference
-Young-Helmholtz Theory of Color Vision Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)
-Memory 1885
-Forgetting Curve & consciousness
-Ebbinghaus Illusion Sir Frances Galton (1822-1911)
-Free-Association Technique
-shares features with the idea of stream of consciousness
which is later developed by Freud Edward Titchener (1867-1927)
-Context Theory of Meaning Early 20th Century Perception & Cognition What is Perception? the organization, identification and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment. James J. Gibson As our primary mode of contact with the world, perception is the informational and causal foundation of our cognitive processes Perception and cognition
are tightly related Edward Tolman "Cognitive maps in rats and men" (1948) -Popularity declined in the 50's and 60's
but use of cognitive map and his ideas continues today Sir Frederick Bartlett forerunner of cognitive psychology -The War of the Ghosts Doctrine of Inseparable Association Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind (1829) mental chemistry associationism -Mayer & Orth (1901)-free association task -a new mental process acquires its
meaning from the context of other
mental processes within which it occurs. Information Processing Approach -Theory of Cognitive Development -Brain Metaphor -contrast between the computer and mind Sense of Smell Olfactory Coding & Perception -Process is not
completely understood -chemotopic map may exist -odorants with similar structure
activate similar perception in the brain Competing Theories -Shape Theory: one feature detected; lock-and-key mechanism

-Odotope Theory: different receptors detect
small pieces of molecules

-Vibration Theory:frequencies of vibrations
are detected -Lucretius: speculated that different odors were
caused by the shapes and sizes of odor molecules -Buck & Axel (2004): cloning and pairing of odor molecules to specific receptor proteins -The study of the relationship between physical stimuli and our subjective sensations of those stimuli 50% Regular tasters; 25% Supertasters; 25% Undertasters

Supertaster: Avoiding bitter foods; will eat less fruits & vegetables; prone to disease

Undertaster: Prone to overeating fatty foods Monday Recap: Sensation --> Perception
Vision, Hearing, Taste, Olfaction, Touch Today: Awareness of Perception
--> Consciousness and Attention Psychophysics Absolute threshold
Difference threshold Absolute Threshold Can we "perceive" without attention? Parallel processing vs. Serial processing -concept of optical flow -strongly in favor of direct
perception
senses provide us with a
direct awareness of external world Smell Touch Consciousness is the quality or state of being AWARE of an external object or something within oneself "Anything that we are aware of at a given moment forms part of our consciousness, making conscious experience at once the most familiar and most mysterious aspect of our lives."

-Velmans & Schneider Subliminal Perception Subliminal messages do not produce strong or lasting changes in behavior Pratkanis & Greenwald (1988) Developmental psychology *Shepard Tone (Roger Shepard) What does it mean to have a "conscious experience"? short reflection Ken Parks Did he have a conscious experience? ...anyone? What is "awareness"? Rich vs. Thin View of Consciousness Define the limits Rich View of Consciousness - full of experience in a wide variety of modalities simultaneously: visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, imagistic, proprioceptive, emotional - limited to one or a few things at a time Your conscious experience is whatever it is by virtue of which there is ‘something it’s like to be you’ Thin View of Consciousness Conscious ‘awareness’ of a stimulus is sometimes assumed to be present if subjects can perform above chance on certain forced-choice tests - William James & John Searle
Our whole cubic capacity is sensibly alive; and each morsel of it contributes its pulsations of feeling, dim or sharp, pleasant, painful, or dubious, to that sense of personality that every one of us unfailingly carries with him - limitation of attention
Absent attention, we fail to parse, respond to, notice, or remember what one might ordinarily think would be salient stimuli Support for Thin View Mack & Rock (1998) Limitations of Attention -Selective Attention
-Sustained Inattention Blindness
-Change Blindness Selective Attention Sustained Inattentional Blindness Change Blindness So far:
Attention as a way of examining consciousness

Let's flip the paradigm Can you find the WHITE TRIANGLE? fMRI Studies show
that subliminal stimuli activate specific regions of the brain despite participants being unaware Brooks et al. (2012) Backmasking Subliminal Messaging in Television Only have an effect when goal-relevant
Karremans (2006) Is consumption behavior affected? Subliminal Priming & Academic Performance -long-term effects? Lowery et al. (2007) Change Blindness Change Blindness a recording technique in which a sound or message is recorded backward on to a track that is meant to be played forward claim that backmasked messages could bypass the conscious mind and reach the subconscious, where they would be unknowingly accepted by the listener. "Invasion of Privacy" What are subliminal messages? signals or messages embedded in a medium that are designed to pass below the normal limits of the human mind's conscious perception Visual
advertisements, television, movies, etc.
Auditory
backmasking in music Major Types How effective are these messages? Still a mystery Subliminal advertising
is banned in the United States The Beatles
Stairway to Heaven-Led Zeppelin jeffmilner.com/backmasking.htm Intentional or unintentional? You decide. Two teenagers commit suicide Parents accuse band of subliminally convincing their children to 'do it' Not found to be true or false in court Are there any benefits? Subliminal Power create your own subliminal messages
"become a walking Einstein" Subliminal Perception Subliminal perception occurs whenever stimuli presented below the threshold for awareness are found to influence thoughts, feelings, or actions. Memory, Attention -Cognitive Process where a subset of available information receives enhanced processing Sustained Inattentional Blindness (Conjunction Search) -A phenomenon that emerges under conditions of selective attention
-Observers who are engaged in attentionally demanding tasks often fail to see unexpected objects or events -Memory & Attention
-Inability to detect change http://www.gocognitive.net/sites/default/files/change_blindness.v.0.93_0.swf Schwitzgebel (2005) Do these examples generally capture our "conscious experiences"?
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