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The Industrial Revolution

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Chaela Carter

on 7 September 2013

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Transcript of The Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
Introduction to the Industry
The Industrial Revolution, despite popular belief, did not start in America. In fact, America would likely not have become industrialized for many more years, if ever, were it not for
Samuel Slater
.
The Industrial Revolution actually began in England in
1733
with the invention of the first cotton mill.
Planning on keeping this new invention a secret, England banned all factory workers from traveling outside of the country. However, many were enticed by America's promise of a plentiful reward to anyone that could produce a cotton spinning machine.
Samuel Slater
,
an apprentice at the English mill, disguised himself to travel to America and trigger the American Industrial Revolution.
Social and Economical Changes
Historical Figures
Bibliography
americanhistory.com
clemson.edu/history
inventors.about.org
lesson-library.com
library.thinkquest.org
mrfarshety.com
pbs.org

By Chaela M. Carter
Table of Contents
The beginning of the Industrialization
- Life before the Industry
-Notable Inventions
-New careers
Social and Economic Changes
-Changes in the household
-Economic and social class changes
-New working laws
Laissez-Faire Conservatism
Historical Figures
Summary
Bibliography
Introduction
The Beginning of Industrialization
Life Before the Industry
americanhistory.com
Once
Slater
managed to safely make his way to America, he reconstructed a
cotton spinning machine entirely from memory. After collecting the reward, he proceeded to build a factory of his own in America.
The Revolution had begun.
Life was definitely not easy before the revolution.
Most were farmers that had
only a few tools and
animals that were difficult to handle to help get the farm
work done
. People lived in small, spaced out towns and villages. Roads were yet to be paved, there were no trains or cars, and communication between communities was passed on slowly, through travelers. Local goods were the only options available, going as far as perhaps one or two towns over.
There was no running water, no electricity, and
without the ability to distribute
cotton in mass amounts,
many made their clothing from animal hide and
fur.
lesson-library.com
Notable
Inventions and Inventors
James Watt
invented the first reliable
steam engine
in
1775.
Eli Whitney
was responsible for the first
cotton gin
(1793)
and the
interchangeable parts
for the musket
(1798)
Robert Fulton
started a regular
steamboat
service on the Hudson
Samuel F. B. Morse
sent the first
telegram
in
1836
.
River in
1807.
Elias Howe
created the
first
sewing machine
in
1844
, but
Isaac Singer
improved
and

marketed
the machine in
1851.
Cyrus Field
designed the
Transatlantic Cable
in
1866.
Alexander Graham Bell
made the first
telephone
call in
1876.
Thomas Edison
took the first
photo
in
1877
and later designed the
incandescent
light bulb
in
1879.
Nikola Tesla
invented the
Induction Electric Motor
in
1888.
Rudolph Diesel
built the
Diesel Engine
in
1892.
Orville
and Wilbur Wright took
flight
in
1903.
Henry Ford
test drove his
Model T-Ford
in
1908
and then
made
the automobile available to the public with his
assembly line

in
1913.
library.thinkquest.org
Changes in Careers
The Industrial Revolution reshaped the agricultural world with new tools and the Enclosure Acts.
When the Enclosure
Acts were put in
place,
farms were
fenced off and any
remaining land was
divided amongst
private, wealthy
investors.
farmers and laborers lost
New technological
advancements such as
perform tasks
seed driller
the
were able to
human
labor
. Crop
rotation and the use
of varied
crops to replenish nutrients in soil were
also put in place. Unfortunately,
these new
advancements were expensive, meaning
with greater
precision and less

family-run farms could no
small
make a profit. As a
longer
result, many tenant
their jobs.
The building of
factories led to
an increase

town population,
turning once small
almost overnight.
with wealthy
the

pace unheard of at the time, exactly alike in
which lowered consumer prices.
this new
proliferation
and crafters.
communities into cities
Those that could not
compete
farmers could
find
employment on
assembly line.
Goods were
being produced at a
quality,
Sadly,
eventually beat of artisans
The rapid development
of industry led to a
greater
need for management.
Well educated men
worked
in positions such as clerk,
secretary, and managers to
lead it all. They were
considered the
"expanding
middle class"
that created the
"dependent lower class-"
the
uneducated and unskilled laborers
required to run to machines
library.thinkquest.org
Changes in the Home
Large factories were able to
Working Conditions and the Union
Business moving outside the home led to changing work relationships.
Workers were dependent on their employers, whom had the power to fire
or hire a worker for any reason. Aware of this dependency, business owners would often work their laborers in terrible conditions for incredibly low wages.

The lowest minimum wage for children was roughly 2 to 4 shillings a week,
women earned about 7 shillings a week, and men earned approximately 20 to 30 shillings a week. (1 shilling = approximately 12 pennies)
With the use of machines, goods were produced at a faster rate, enabling a higher standard of living. New social classes were created, the household dynamic changed, women and even children entered the work force.
Changes in the Economy
world became closely related.

A new Laizzes-faire policy was
With business booming, the politcal world and the economical
This lead to

capitalism, giving private business owners the ability to
the nation and no
nation's
enacted in the United States to replace mercantilism (using a
monetary wealth to increase power - enforced by strict
regulation). The new policy granted free trade within
governmental influence.
Soviet Union.
socialism was
raise
and lower prices as they saw fit to increase profit.
Meanwhile,
introduced to Great Britain and communism to the
Many developed countries resorted to imperialism to protect their assets.
Capitalism
Socialism
Communism
Imperialism
mrfarshety.net/notes
of going
his own, women and even
own.
Instead, children began
Families no longer remained on one
city everyday to
rural
businesses were disappearing
a faster, more
produce goods at
consistent rate, meaning
family owned

quickly. Needing an income,
workers soon began
commuting,
or traveling into the
find work.
specific homestead.
moving off to the city to live on their
When the father could no longer make
ends meet on
children were met with the reality
into the workforce as well.
mrfarshety.net/notes
Employers were more than happy to
hire children due to their being more easy to control than adults. Children also had small hands, making it easier to change machine parts.
Laborers worked up to
18 hours a day
. Eventually, a
worker union, groups of laborers formed for the purpose of raising wages and improving conditions, achieved new minimum wage and labor laws, accomplished often times by going on strike until their demands were met
.
clemson.edu/history
Franis Cabot Lowell
(Apr. 7th, 1775 - Aug. 10th, 1817)
A successful textile
businessman
in America.
Lowell
used shareholding
to further his business, the
Boston Manufacturing
Company.
His shareholding system is still used
today.
Lowell was a pioneer in the employment
of women. While there paid low wages, the
Lowell Mill Girls were given educations and
religious freedoms not
offered anywhere else.
After his death,
Newbury Port,
Massachusetts was
renamed Lowell in his
honor.
lowell.com
(Jun. 9th 1768 - Apr. 21st 1835)
Samuel Slater
Known as
"The Father of
the Industrial Revolution
,"
Samuel Slater worked from
an early age at a British
cotton mill as an
apprentice
. With the hope
of one day owning his own mill, Slater smuggled himself and his knowledge of cotton mills to America to
trigger the Industrial Revolution
. He
invented the
first water powered mill
and began employing families, providing houses for the workers.
pbs.org
Eli Whitney
(Dec. 8th 1765 - Jan. 8th 1825)
Eli Whitney was
responsible
for the creation of the
cotton gin. Before its
invention,
separating cotton
fibers from the seed took
hundreds of laborer hours. With the cotton gin, 50 pounds of clean cotton could be
produced daily.

Sadly, Whitney
would never make a profit from the gin
, as imitation machines soon popped up.
inventors.about.com
In Closing. . .
The American Industrial Revolution shaped our country and culture into the way of life we know today. Many of the labor laws passed during the Industrial Revolution are still used today. Without the Revolution, we may all have still been farmers in little towns without running water, electricity and worst of all. . . no internet (invented in the 1950s).
human
make a profit. As a
Full transcript