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ADS-C Overview

ATC Data Link News

Craig Roberts

on 8 March 2012

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Transcript of ADS-C Overview

Automatic Dependent Surveillance
ADS-C was the first form of ADS.

ADS-C relies on specific contracts (or agreements) being established between the ground system and the aircraft's avionics.
Basically, this means that the ground system provides the aircraft with a list of reports to send and specifies when they are required to be sent.

The aircraft automatically complies when it is technically possible.
is Dependent Surveillance because the ground system is dependent on reports from the aircraft - rather than an independent source, such as primary radar.
The initial purpose of ADS-C was to provide surveillance for aircraft operating in non-surveillance airspace.
RADAR Installations
The ADS-C controller indication varies across equipment vendors, but generally an actual report is shown and then, based on information received in the report (ETA, speed...), extrapolation symbols are displayed until the next report is received.
QFA64 H 42
350 350 B744
Types of Contract
The use of ADS-C with a minimum reporting rate (not > every 14 mins) allows longitudinal and lateral separation standards in oceanic areas to be reduced to 30NM/30NM.
There are a number of contract types:
A report sent every "x" minutes.
Report required when a specified event occurs.
When crossing a waypoint in the aircraft's flight plan.
Single Periodic Report requested from the ground.
When climbing/descending through a parameter above/below the cleared level.
When deviating beyond a specified lateral distance from the centreline.
Waypoint Event
Altitude Range Change Event
Lateral Deviation Event
ADS-C Information Groups
Periodic Reports can also contain various groups of optional data generated by the avionics.
The request for automatic inclusion of any of these groups is part of the contract sent by the ground system.
For Example:
Predicted Route Group

Earth Reference Group

Meteorological Group

Aircraft Intent Group
(ETA, altitude, Lat/Long at Next position, Next + 1 posn)
(True Track, Ground Speed, Vertical Rate)
(Wind and Temperature)
(Fixed Intent and any Intermediate Intent points)
Update of estimates, and Route Conformance
Track extrapolation
Actual weather
Route Conformance (long-term)
Each report from the aircraft includes the Basic ADS Group, which contains the current location and the altitude/level.
(ADS-B Surveillance)
The majority of information is exchanged system-to-system and is not specifically seen by either the controller or the pilot.
In fact...
...the pilot can only turn the ADS-C application on or off , and select the ADS-C emergency mode on or off.
And, in many ground systems, the controller can only change the periodic reporting rate for a particular aircraft, or to manually request a Demand Contract in order to update the ATC display.
Human Interaction
Craig Roberts, ATC Data Link News
ADS-B has since fulfilled this need in some continental airspaces, such as in Australia.
The incoming information is generally used to update the controller's display in the background.
QFA64 H 42
350 350 B744
QFA64 H 42
350 350 B744
QFA64 H 42
350 350 B744
QFA64 H 42
350 350 B744
4.5 NM
QFA64 H 42
350 350 B744
2 mins
14 mins
20 mins
30 mins
5 mins
Reporting Rate
The stands for
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