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Presentation - Haussmann

20/02/2013
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An De Bai

on 20 February 2013

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Transcript of Presentation - Haussmann

HAUSSMANN & THE NEW PARIS André BELTRAN
20/02/2013 Gustave Caillebotte. Paris Street, Rainy Day 1877. Art Institute of Chicago. 1992 2002 1997 2007 2012 2017 Introduction:

"The Second Empire" 1794 The estate of the City Very short history of Paris Outline A GARGATUAN PROJECT

a- Led by two great man of the 19th century
b- Commission and organization of the work
c- The realizations

CONSEQUENCES & POSTERITY

a- A controversial ending
b- Social consequences
c- Criticism Second Republic Second French Empire Third Republic Issue at stake: How was the
« old » Paris ? 1848 1851 1852 1870 Characteristics:
Emperor

1852-1860: Authoritative Election of Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte as president Take-over
(dissolution of the Assembly) Referendum Battle of Sedan HAUSSMANN WORK: 1853-1870 • Blurry origins → "Lutetia" founded by the Parisii (Antiquity)
→ "dwellings surrounded by water" (Celtic) or "Lucotetia" (swamp) in Latin

• One of France important city

• Became the lasting capital after the French Revolution Photographs by
Charles Marville
(1813-1879) The two fathers of the transformation Napoleon III (1808-1873) Winterhalter, 1855, Museo Napoleonico, Rome Portrait of Napoleon III





• MODERN PERIPHERY (end 18th and beginning 19th)
+ "Places royales" & "Grands boulevards"

• MEDIEVAL CENTER = narrow dark streets, humid and unsanitary, even shantytowns

• No generalized running water system & sewage system (hence cholera epidemics in 1832/1849)

• Circulation issues (network not adapted to economic growth)

• Quick growth of the population (1845 to 1848 = 600.000 → 950.000 inhabitants) because of the industrial revolution (rural exodus)

• A city of layers → stigma of the past Through the observation of the development of a new Paris, couldn’t we question Haussmann’s real role in this growth? In which ways was the city affected? Is he the genius often depicted or a "simple" mason? "Problématique" Plan of the
"Commission des Artistes" Portrait of
Haussmann Lehmann, 1860, Museum Carnavalet, Paris George-Eugène Haussmann
(1809-1891) • Inspired by London
• " Saint-Simonien"
• "L'extinction du paupérisme" Brilliant student •
Prefectural administration•
"Préfet de la Seine" in 1853• "Commission Simeon"
& Organization of the work "Commission des embellissements de la ville" in 1853 Haussmann
-> he seized their plan/modified it
-> work already started before (he did not invent "La Percée")
-> Napoleon influence
-> solid team at the administrative district of la Seine Realizations Stylistic point of view Avenue de l'Opéra, soleil, matinée d'hiver Pissaro, 1898,
Musée des
Beaux-Arts
de Reims Controversial ending Thank you for your attention :)
Any questions? Social consequences Criticisms Conclusion: Bibliography: I will post this presentation
on our seminar group
• Jean-Charles ALPHAND (1817-1891)
• Eugène BELGRAND (1810-1878)
• Victor BALTARD (1805-1874)
• Gabriel DAVIOUD (1824-1881) Engineers Architects
80 000 workers -
40 000 buildings -
600 km sewage system -
New "percées" of 64km -
80 000 new trees -
Renovation "Bois de Boulogne"-
& "de Vincennes 1860: Annexation Decree Relevant decrees:

1852:
1855:
1859: Figures obligation to ask for approval of plans
obligation to conform to the other buildings of the street
obligation to respect precise measures "Façade haussmannienne à Paris", 1888 - Serial architecture
- Continuous balcony
- flatness of the facades


Constant reminder of
the classics Three fronts for work:

- modernization of the
"croisée antique"

- Conquest of the west

- Annexation of the 8 new
"arrondissements" Myth of the "securing destruction" Money: an important aspect - He found new ways to raise funds
- Prosperous (climax industrial capitalism) + authoritarian power
- Apparition of "masked loans" -> debt of hundred of millions... Aristocratic model
Flats "en enfilade" wave of speculation Les Comptes Fantastiques d'Haussmann by Jules FERRY (1868) Pretext for the Imperial decree to dismiss Hausmann
5th january 1870 Destruction of venerable monuments
An annoying character (staging)
Too long works? 1873: Bank crisis - No intellectual/social preoccupation
- "The Attila of expropriation"
- Gentrification phenomenon
- Opposed to Napoleon III's opinion (but he never enriched himself) For the workers and less rich people Creation of a new life style for the richer - "La ville des lumières" & "La vie parisienne"
- 1855: "Companie générale des omnibus"
- Liberation of flows
- The first "Grands magasins"
Napoléon III givng to baron Haussmann the decree "d'annexion des communes limitrophes", le 16 février 1859 Yvon, 1865, Museum Carnavalet VS. The Bridge of Europe Caillebotte, 1877, Museum of Geneva At that time & afterward -> economic reasons / social reasons / securing myth / destroyed the historical heart / too long work / destruction of some monuments / paludism issues / an insensible man?

-> 1867: Ernest PICARD intervention (+ intellectual opposition) « Paris haché à coups de sabre, les veines ouvertes, nourrissant cent mille terrassiers et maçons, traversé par d’admirables voies stratégiques qui mettront les forts au cœur des vieux quartiers... ». Emile ZOLA, 1871 La Curée, Universal Exposition of 1867 photograph A nuanced portrait of Haussmann Construction of a myth: Mémoires du Baron Haussmann , (1890-1893) Preface, p.V "... cette grande et difficile oeuvre: la Transformation de Paris, dont je fus l'instrument dévoué, de 1853 à 1870, et reste l'éditeur responsable, dans un pays où l'on personnifie toute chose." Fascination => a lot of books dedicated to him In literature: Les Fleurs du Mal, (1857)

" Tableaux Parisiens"

" Le crépuscule du Matin " section Charles BAUDELAIRE Notre Dame de Paris (1831)

Les Misérables (1862) Victor HUGO La Curée (1871)

Au Bonheur des Dames (1883)

L'Assomoir (1876) Emile ZOLA " Les Embarras de Paris " (1660) Nicolas BOILEAU « Sur la rue, la maison avait cinq étages, alignant chacun à la file quinze fenêtres, dont les persiennes noires, aux lames cassées, donnaient un air de ruine à cette immense muraille. [ ... ] La maison [. .. ] pareille à un bloc de mortier gâché grossièrement, se pourrissant et s’émiettant sous la pluie, elle profilait [. .. ] son énorme, cube brut, ses flancs couleur de boue » (11.49).

« À l’intérieur [. .. ] c’étaient des façades grises, mangées d’une lèpre jaune, rayées de bavures par l’égouttement des toits » (11.50). L'assomoir , ZOLA Description of a worker's house in the neighborhood of " La Goutte d'Or " The plot in itself deals with the renovation of Paris! • Ile de la Cité = "ce n'est qu'une vaste ruine, tout au plus bonne à loger les rats de l'ancienne Lutèce" (Napoleon) In which ways was the city affected?







Is he the genius often depicted or a "simple" mason? « Paris embellie, Paris agrandie, Paris assainie »

→ material aspect
→ social aspect 60% of Paris evolved And if we think about today...

Harmonization of the outskirt of the Parisian suburb?
Le Grand Paris? - George-Eugène, Haussmann.
V. Havard (Paris), 1890-1893. 3 vol.

- Maurice, Agulhon.

Points, 1998. 736p.

-Léon, Bernard.
Oskar, 2007. 128p.

-Jean, Tulard.
Editions Fayard, 1995. 1370p. Les Mémoires du Baron Haussmann Histoire de la France urbaine, T4 le cycle haussmannien, la ville à l’âge industriel. Rois, empereurs et chefs d’états de la France. Dictionnaire du Second Empire Internet: - Vossen Franz. Les deux villes : du Paris de Quasimodo au Paris d'Haussmann. In: Annales. Économies, Sociétés, Civilisations. 2e année, N. 4, 1947. pp. 385-396.

http://www.wmaker.net/opcc/ ["les immeubles Haussmann"]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haussmann's_renovation_of_Paris

http://etudes-romantiques.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr/wa_files/Pinon.pdf

http://idhe.u-paris10.fr/servlet/com.univ.collaboratif.utils.LectureFichiergw?ID_FICHIER=1348818744640

- SPÉCULATION ET SOCIÉTÉ : LES GRANDS TRAVAUX À PARIS AU 19E SIÈCLE (Article parudans la revue Histoire, Économie et Société, 2004, n° 3, p. 434-448) http://www.persee.fr Images: - Caillebotte, , 1877, Art Institute of Chicago

- Idem, , 1877, Museum of Geneva

- Winterhalter, ,1855, Museo Napoleonico, Rome

- Lehmann, , 1860, Museum Carnavalet, Paris

- Yvon,
1865, Museum Carnavalet

- Pissaro, , 1898, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Reims Paris Street Rainy Day The bridge of Europe Portrait of Napoleon III Portrait of Haussmann
Napoléon III givng to baron Haussmann the decree "d'annexion des communes limitrophes" Avenue of the Opera SOURCES: → http://images.google.com/
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