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Plate Tectonics

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Katie Dinsmore

on 27 January 2014

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Transcript of Plate Tectonics

Geology
Plates and Boundaries
Tectonic Plates
Tectonic Plate - pieces of the lithosphere that move around on the top of the asthenosphere and fit together like puzzle pieces
Lithosphere - rigid outermost part of Earth including the crust and upper mantle
Asthenosphere - plastic-like flowing part of the Earth including the mantle
Divergent Boundary
plates pull apart
activity - earthquakes and new crust is created
features - mid-ocean ridges, rift valleys, and shield volcanoes
examples

Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Red Sea
East African Rift Zone
Juan de Fuca
Transform Boundary
plates slide past one another
activity - earthquakes
features - none
examples
San Andreas Fault
along mid-ocean ridges
Juan de Fuca
Convergent Boundary
ocean plates collide
activity - subduction and crust is destroyed
features - trenches and island arcs
examples
Japan
Indonesia
Marianas Trench
Convergent Boundary
ocean plate and continent plate collide
Ocean to Continent
Ocean to Ocean
activity - subduction and crust is destroyed
features - trenches and volcanic arcs
examples
Cascade Mts.
Andes Mts.

Peru-Chile Trench
Juan de Fuca
Convergent Boundary
Continent to Continent
continent plates collide
activity - both continent plates are forced upward
features - nonvolcanic mountains
examples
Himalayan Mts.
Mount Everest
Shield Volcano
- lava is runny and spreads quickly (mafic magma)
- gentle slope
- can become a big volcanoes
- where from: Hot spots
- example - Kilauea in Hawaii
Cinder Cone
- produces explosive eruptions
- occurs in clusters and erodes fast
- gives off pyroclastic material and felsic magma
- Steep slope
Composite
- lets off an explosive of pyroclastic material and then felisic lava (alternating layers)
- broad base then steep slope
- where from: subduction zones
- example: Mount St. Helens
and Mount Fugi
Magma
Location- deep regions of the crust, upper most mantle
- pressure and temperture are components that help form magma
Pressure and Temperture
- pressure is caused by weight of rocks above mantle
- temperature of upper mantle is very hot
consist of putty like rocks that flow slowly
- temperture increases and pressure decreases = rocks melting

Eruptions
Expolsive- Destructive
examples- molten rock blown to dust particles, ash released (circle earth for years), blast tons of rock/magma form volcano, destroy part of mountain side.
Non-explosive- releases large amounts of flowing magma
Close areas get covered in magma
Hot Spots
volcanically active places on the Earth’s surface that are far from plate boundaries
State of volcanos
Extinct volcanoes- haven’t erupted in many years and probably never will again
Dormant volcanoes- currently not erupting, but records say they might erupt in the future
Active volcanoes- currently erupting now or showing signs of erupting in the future
Eruptions from volcanoes
- can turn mountains into ash
- form fertile farmland
- create large mountains
During eruptions
- magma is pushed to the earths
surface (lava- magma that flows into earth’s surface)

Volcanos Insides
Magma chamber - a body of molten rock deep underground that feeds a volcano
Vents- Magma chamber through cracks in the Earth’s crust to openings that allow magma to come through

Types of Volcanoes
Oceanic Crust - thinner, denser, and apart of the lithosphere
Continental Crust - thicker, less dense, and apart of the lithosphere
Crust!
Juan de Fuca
Triple Junction - Divergent, Transform, and Convergent (oceanic to continental)
Volcanoes- a vent in the earth
that gives off lava (mafic and felisic), ash, and steam
- where from: subduction zones
- example: Paracutin in Mexico
Magma
Felisic
Felisic - containing a group of light-colored minerals that occur in igneous rocks
Properties
- High in silica
- High viscosity
- Light in color
- High levels of dissolved gases
- Can't dissolve gases easily
- Pyroclastic flow
- Creates steep slopes
Forms cinder cone and composite volcanoes
Mafic
Mafic - containing dark-colored minerals of magnesium and iron that occur in igneous rocks
Properties
- Low in silica
- Low viscosity
- Dark in color
- Low levels of dissolved gas
- Can dissolve gases easily
- Creates broad slopes
- Lava flow
forms shield volcanoes
Definitions
Extra Information
Lava
- the molten fluid rock that issues from a volcano or volcanic vent
Silicates
- any salt derived from silica
Viscosity
- the property of a fluid that resists the force tending to cause the fluid to flow
Dissolved

Gases
- gas that is broken down to a simple physical solution
Pyroclastic

Flow
- a rapidly moving turbulent incandescent cloud of gas, ash, and rock fragments flowing close to the ground after violent ejection from a volcano

Zones
Location of Volcanoes
plate boundaries
hot spots
subduction zones
rift zones
Example: Ring of Fire
Example: Kilauea in Hawaii
broad volcano built up from the repeated nonexplosive eruption of basalt to form a low dome or shield, usually having a large caldera at the summit
a small conical volcano built of ash and cinders
a large, steep volcano built up from alternating layers of lava and ash or cinders
Subduction Zones
Rift Zones
- mantle plumes - hot spots directly above columns of rising magma
- no boundary type
- mostly gentle eruption
- shield cone
chain of extinct volcanoes
the process by which collision of the Earth's plates results in one plate's being drawn down
- convergent boundary
- explosive eruption
- composite or cinder cone
happen when two tectonic plates pull apart and create a valley where lava comes through
- Boundary is divergent
- Eruptions are gentle
- shield volcano when two continental plates separate
example - Mid-Atlantic Ridge
by Margaret, Katie, and Jennie
Magma - molten material beneath or within earth's crust from which igneous rock is formed
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