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Greek and Roman Mythology
Transcript of Greek and Roman Mythology
Greece is a country located in Southeastern Europe, on land beside the Mediterranean Sea. Architecture from Ancient Greece Modern Greece Ancient Rome Where was Ancient Rome located? Rome is currently the capital city located in Italy, in Southern Europe. Can you think of some of the things that originated from Ancient Greece? The Alphabet (adapted it) The Olympics Vowels The Vending Machine The Thermometer Architecture from Ancient Rome The Parthenon The Acropolis of Athens Theater and Temple of Apollo The Map Alarm Clock Democracy Colosseum/Coliseum Arches Domes Pantheon Can you think of some of the things that originated from Rome? Roads Arches Concrete Aqueducts Sandals Now that we have a bit of general information on them, let's get to their mythology and beliefs starting at the beginning! So first of all...what is a myth? A work of fiction means that it is not real, or made up. A myth can be classified as a type of fiction. These myths show us how the Greeks and the Romans viewed the history and creation of the world. The Beginning In the beginning, there was nothing. A universe with matter, but all disorganized, mixed up and dark. This itself was called Chaos. After Chaos, gods came into the picture. There was Gaia, and Uranus. Gaia was the Earth, and she held up Uranus, the sky. First, Gaia and Uranus gave birth to monsters such as the Cyclopes, and secondly, they gave birth to the Titans as the second generation. There was a problem though, Uranus despised the Titans, as he knew that eventually his power would be overthrown by one of them. The 12 Titans aren't all worth remembering, but a couple of important ones that are includes Oceanus, the god of the sea, and Cronus, the most powerful of the 12. Gaia was furious at Uranus for his bullying of their children, and she assisted Cronus into overthrowing him. Cronus became King and married another Titan (also his sister) Rhea. This time was called the Golden Age, since a Titan named Prometheus created men, and they were all happy and lived in harmony... But this eventually came to a close... The Beginning Everything was going fine until Cronus heard a prophecy that one of his sons would dethrone him, and much like his father, Uranus, his mind became poisoned for power. Frightened at being overthrown, every time that Rhea gave birth to a child, Cronus would swallow it. Rhea became disgusted at her husband eating their children, so she tricked him when she gave birth to her sixth child, and instead of giving it to him, she wrapped a rock to resemble a baby for him to eat. The sixth child was Zeus, and with a specially made drink, Zeus got Cronus to vomit the other five children out. They were all very thankful to Zeus and therefore made him their leader. Cronus fought back, alongside the other Titans excluding Oceanus, Prometheus, and Epimetheus. Zeus went to Tartarus (the deep abyss that is used as a dungeon of torment and the suffering of the wicked) and freed the Cyclopes and the Hecatoncheires (imprisoned by Uranus and Cronus), and they aided Zeus against the Titans. Together, also with Prometheus, they claimed victory against his father and the Titans. Here is a short video on the Creation of the World - Greek Mythology...
Listen well! The Twelve Olympians These twelve gods were the major gods of the Greek Pantheon, and lived atop Mount Olympus, all somehow related to Zeus, their ruler and the supreme god as well. I will classify each god with their personality, what they are a god of, their symbols, etc. Greek Name: Aphrodite Roman Name: Venus Symbols: Dove, Swan, Myrtle, Dolphin, Sparrow, Rose, Mirror, Girdle, and Scallop Shell Aphrodite was the goddess of love and beauty. People have different theories of how she was born, some people think that she arose from a foamy sea, and others think that she is the daughter of Zeus and Dione. Whichever one, the other gods feared that her beauty would disturb the peace among them and stir up a war, and so she was forced to marry Hephaestus. This is because he was not seen as a threat due to his ugliness and deformity. Aphrodite also wore a magic belt that made all the other men fall in love with her. The other goddesses begged for this belt, they even tried to steal it but failed to. Her beauty was too powerful that even wild lions and tigers were tamed at the sight of her. Greek Name: Apollo Roman Name: Apollo Symbols: Lyre, Laurel, Python, Raven, Bow and Arrows, Crow, Dolphin Apollo was the god of light and truth, healing, archery and music. He is the son of Zeus and Leto, and Artemis is his twin sister. He was handsome, talented, charming, and honest, and possibly the most loved of all the gods on Mount Olympus. He brought joy to the other Olympians when he played songs on his Lyre and sang. He tutored people on how to care for the sick, and he shot arrows into the monsters that posed a threat to anyone he loved. He brought goodwill with him everywhere he went. Mount Olympus, the home of the Olympians Greek Name: Ares Roman Name: Mars Symbols: Vulture, Dog, Spear, Helmet, Chariot, Boar Ares was the god of war, and, fitting to his personality, he loved war. Ares was a bloody and fierce person. Not even his parents, Zeus and Hera, really liked him. He prospered on violence and bloody battles. Underneath him, the Earth growled and groaned. He joined wars on Earth alongside humans, but he wasn't as powerful as one would think him to be. At times, he was even driven away by humans who promoted peace. Greek Name: Artemis Roman Name: Diana Symbols: Stag, Cypress, Moon, Hunting Dog, Bow and Arrows Artemis was the goddess of the hunt, of the moon, and of the children. Her parents are Zeus and Leto, and she is the twin sister of Apollo. Equipped with a silver bow and arrows, she followed stags around and also other wild animals. Despite being the goddess of the hunt, she protected young animals and cared for children. Artemis acted similarly to her brother, she could even bring and erase deadly diseases to whole countries. She was never married like Athena. Greek Name: Athena Roman Name: Minerva Symbols: Owl, Shield, Olive Branch, Aegis, Armor, Helmets, Spears, Gorgoneion Athena was the goddess of wisdom, war, arts and crafts. Athena's birth is a weird story. She was born fully grown and dressed in armor from Zeus' forehead. She despised war, and only chose to defend the good and right side. Athena never lost a battle, and she carries around a magic shield that turns her foes into stone. She never married and was also Zeus' favorite child. Greek Name: Demeter Roman Name: Ceres Symbols: Wheat, Cornucopia, Torch Demeter was the goddess of grains, corns, and harvest. She is the daughter of Cronus and Rhea. Though she is described simply as the god of harvest, she presided over the devotion of marriage, the sacred law, and the cycle of life and death. Her daughter, Persephone, was taken by Hades to become his wife in the underworld. Demeter, in her anger, she made a curse on all the plants in the world to wither away and die. Zeus pursued in Persephone's return because of this. Only, she had eaten in the Underworld, and therefore Hades had claimed her. Instead, she would go to the Underworld for 4 months every year, and then return. During the 4 months, Demeter craves her daughter's return, and took away her gifts from the world, bringing winter. When she returned, she would bring spring. Greek Name: Hephaestus Roman Name: Vulcan Symbols: Blacksmith's Hammer, Anvil, Tongs, Fire Hephaestus was the god of the forge. He is the son of Zeus and Hera. Being the blacksmith god, he created all of the weapons and armor of the gods in Olympus, and the least good-looking of the Olympians. He also created jewelry, his forge located underneath any erupting volcano. He was gentle, good-natured, and a hard worker. Although, even his mother hated him, and he was born with a deformed foot. Greek Name: Hermes Roman Name: Mercury Symbols: Caduceus (his staff), Talaria (winged sandals), Winged Helmet, Tortoise, Lyre, Rooster, Snake Hermes was the god of motion, sleep and dreams, commerce, and travelers. Hermes was the son of Zeus and Maia. He was quick, graceful, and intelligent. Being Zeus' messenger, he wore a golden winged helmet to protect him from bad weather, and golden winged sandals that gave him incredible speed. His caduceus guided him on his journeys and was a gift from Apollo. One of his jobs were to lead the dead to Hades' Underworld, and another was to watch over tradesmen and travelers, also making sure they had a good sleep with good dreams. Hermes invented fire, boxing, written music, and also the lyre, which was his gift to Apollo Greek Name: Hestia Roman Name: Vesta Symbols: The Hearth and its fire Hestia was the goddess of the hearth. Her parents were Cronus and Rhea. She was the sweetest, the gentlest, and the most generous of all the Olympians. She never disagreed with anyone, and never went on anyone's side when the other gods bickered. She protected the home and family, and was never married. Every human prayed to her, and a fire in a hearth was considered Hestia's fire. Greek Name: Poseidon Roman Name: Neptune Symbols: Trident, Horse, Fish, Dolphin, Bull Poseidon was the god of the sea, and the second most powerful god on Mount Olympus. His parents were Cronus and Rhea. He won and was assigned to the realm of the seas after the victory against the Titans. He spent his time between Mount Olympus and his palace beneath the sea. Being always active, he plotted to seize lands, cities, and countries that the humans inhabited. He dried up the lakes and rivers not trustworthy, and flung giant tidal waves on his enemies and those who agitated him. When he rode atop the seas on his golden chariot, the waters were still . Poseidon also invented the horse and gave it to men Greek Name: Hera Roman Name: Juno Symbols: Pomegranate, Peacock feather, Diadem, Cow, Lily Hera was Queen of gods, and the wife of Zeus. Her parents were Cronus and Rhea. Life on Mount Olympus wasn't easy for her. Even though Zeus asked her for assistance in ruling the other Olympians, she had a difficult time managing him. Her time was mostly spent in jealous rages, and plotting either to destroy Zeus, or to punish his other lady friends. Commonly seen alongside her pet peacock, she was a hero to married women everywhere, and worshiped by them as the protector of marriage. Greek Name: Zeus Roman Name: Jupiter Symbols: Eagle, Shield, Thunderbolt, Oak Tree Zeus is the god of sky and thunder, and the ruler of the gods on Mount Olympus. He was also the most powerful of the Olympians. He is the child of Cronus and Rhea that fought against his father and freed his other siblings. He commanded the sun and moon to rise and set, changed the seasons, and carried a shield marked with an eagle. One shake from this shield would cause a storm. When he was aggravated, angered or was facing his enemies, he propelled thunder bolts at them. Greek Name: Hades Roman Name: Pluto Symbols: Helmet, Metals, Jewels, Cerberus (three headed dog) Hades was the god of the underworld, and of wealth. He is another son of Cronus and Rhea. The Underworld was a gloomy realm of wailing ghosts, shrieking bats, and lost,evil souls. Hades rarely visited Mount Olympus or the land of the living and because of this isn't generally considered one of the 12 Olympians. No one could see him even if he did visit. He wore a magic helmet that made him invisible. No one who entered the Underworld was ever allowed to leave. The one exception was Persephone, Hades’ wife, who lived on Mount Olympus before she became his queen. Hades owned everything precious that lay in the ground - every single piece of gold and silver, every diamond, ruby, emerald and other gem. Mythology Is Everywhere! There is a great plethora of examples in our everyday world that relates to greek and roman mythology. Here are some: (in mythology)Chaos-the nothingness from which all else sprang
(today)Chaos-a complete lack of organization/order
Titans-parents of the Olympic gods
Titanic-gigantic, something very large
Ceres-Roman goddess of agriculture, particularly grains
Cereal-breakfast food made of grain, and usually eaten with milk
Hygieia-Goddess of good health
Hygiene-preserving health by staying clean
Nemesis-goddess of revenge/retribution
Many Planets named after Gods/ Goddesses GAME TIME! Stuff Used:
http://prezi.com/ Hope you enjoyed and learned stuff!