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Nationalists Challenge Conservative Power

AP Euro: Greeks, 1830s, 1840s, France Republics
by

Kristin Palomares

on 10 February 2014

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Transcript of Nationalists Challenge Conservative Power

Nationalists Challenge Conservative Power
Greeks Gain Independence
1830s Uprisings
1848 Revolutions Fail to Unite
Radicals Change France
Reform In Russia
First people to win self rule during this period
Ottomans
Controlled most of the Balkan region
Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey, and the former Yugoslavia
1821
Greeks rebelled against the Ottoman Turks
European Support
Russians connected to the Greek Orthodox Christians who were ruled by the Muslin Ottomans
Educated Europeans loved and respected ancient Greek culture
1827
British, French, and Russian fleets destroyed the Ottomans
Battle of Navarino
1830
Britain, France, and Russia signed a treaty guaranteeing an independent kingdom of Greece
Greece On The Ruins of Missolonghi
Eugene Delacroix
Greece is depicted as a kneeling woman
Black man wearing a yellow turban symbolizes the enemy
Clothing is symbolic of revolution and lady liberty
Dead hand = death of Greeks
Planting flag = Ottomans claiming land
Nationalist riots broke out against Dutch rule in the Belgian city of Brussels
Belgians seceded & declared their independence
October 1830
Belgium
Italy
Nationalists working to unite the city-states of Italy were but down by the Austrian Prince Metternich & by the Pope
The Poles
An armed rebellion in partitioned Poland against the Russian Empire
Took the Russian army almost a year to crush the uprising
Louis Kossuth
Budapest
Only in France was the demand for a democratic government the main goal
Charles X
Louis-Philippe
Louis-Napoleon
Bonaparte
aka Napoleon III
Czar Nicholas I
1853
Crimean War
1856
Russia Lost
Due to the combined forces of France, Great Britain, Sardinia, and the Ottoman Empire
Alexander II
1861
Edict of Emancipation
1881
assassinated by anarchists
Tightened czarist control over the country
Encouraged industrial development
Why did France's Third Republic fail?
What was the driving force behind Russia's industrial expansion?
Why did some liberals disapprove of the way Louis-Napoleon ruled France after the uprisings in 1848?
What consequences did Alexander's reforms have on Russia?
South
Catholic
Spoke French
High unemployment
Industrial unrest
Led Warsaw officers
dissatisfaction with leadership
demands for democracy
developing nationalism
Year of Revolution
Conservatism
Liberalism
"king of the French people" turned "bourgeois monarch"
lack of social legislation
self-interested
Refusal to consider electoral reform
2nd Republic
Revolt in Paris by workers & students
universal male suffrage, freed slaves in colonies, abolished death penalty, established a 10 hour work day in Paris
high unemployment & worsening depression
Political Factions
Moderate Liberals
Radical Republicans
wanted temporary relief
opposed further social measures
opposed capitalism
advocated unionization
vs
Compromise
national workshops
pick & shovel programs
Artisans & unskilled workers invaded Constituent Assembly
Assembly dissolved workshops in Paris & gave works choice of army or workshops in countryside
Paris Barricades spark June Days
wanted to re-establish old order
used military campaigns to bolster nationalism (Algeria)
Revoked Constitutional Charter (voting & press)
The Austrian-Hapsburg Empire
national autonomy
full civil liberties
universal suffrage

Wanted...
Ferdinand I of Austria
promised reforms & a liberal constitution after Viennese students/workers & peasants throughout empire revolted
Metternich
fled to London
serfdom
abolished
peasants lost interest in revolution
socialist workshops & universal suffrage
urban class division
Revolutionary leaders wanted a democratic constitution & centralized Hungarian nation
Minority groups
(Croats, Serbs, & Romanians)
wanted autonomy
Francis Joseph
Led conservative effort, assisted by Russia, that crushed liberal revolts
led liberal efforts
artisans & factory workers + middle class liberals
Frederick William IV
VS
Promised
liberal constitution
union with German state
Frankfurt Assembly
distracted by Denmark's claim to Schleswig & Holstein
land was occupied by Germans
Called on Prussian army thus sparking war
Named Frederick Emperor
Frederick William IV
disbanded Assembly
created a conservative constitution
Tried to get other German states to elect him emperor
Ferdinand I of Austria
Metternich
Kossuth
Francis Joseph
Frederick William IV of Prussia
Frankfurt Assembly
Taboo Review
Why did the revolutions of 1848 fail?
Charles X
Louis-Philippe
2nd Republic
June Days
Napoleon III
Taboo Review
France's Second Republic
Uncle's romanticized legacy
Middle class wanted protection from socialist urban workers
Program of industrialized reform
Napoleon III's Second Empire
Dissolved conservative National Assembly
How?
Granted universal male suffrage
Invested in banking and railroads
Public works programs; rebuilt Paris
Success
wages & profits increased
unemployment decreased
better housing
granted unionization
Conservatism decreased with shift in public mood & age
Problem
Solution
Multinational state
Military conquest
Absolutist
Agrarian economy
Modernization
Goal
modernization
Zemstvo
Legal System
Independent courts
Industrialized
collective ownership made it difficult to improve agricultural methods
each community had 49 years to pay government back
aristocracy kept 1/2 of the land
locally elected council
remained subordinate to aristocracy
rule of law
Alexander III
Reactionary
Sergei Witte
Minister of Finance
Industrial surge (1890-1900)
doubled railroads
established tariffs
used gold standard
encouraged foreign investment
Nicholas I
Crimean War
Alexander II
Edict of Emancipation
Zemstvo
Alexander III
Serge Witte
Taboo Review
Ottomans
Balkans
Battle of Navarino
Delacroix
Taboo Review
Full transcript