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Transcript of Behaviorism Timeline
Ivan Pavlov (1893)
While studying the digestive processes of dogs, physiologist physiologist, Pavlov noticed that the dogs would salivate when a human came into the room. This occurred because the dogs began to associate the presence of a human with the meat he used for the digestion experiment. Soon Pavlov introduced a bell into their feedings and they began to salivate upon hearing the bell whether food was present or not. The experiment showed that a previously neutral stimulus could become a conditioned stimulus that provoked a conditioned response. The phenomenon became known as classical conditioning.
John Watson (1913)
Watson established the behavioral school of psychology and published an article titled "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It" also known as the "Behaviorist Manifesto" in which the major features of behaviorism were outlined.
Little Albert Experiment (1920)
The Little Albert Experiment helped psychologist to discover the effects of classical conditioning on emotional responses. Psychologist Watson and Rayner used a nine moth old baby they named Albert B and introduced him to numerous animals. The child showed no fear of these animals at first. After a few attempts of Watson and Rayner making loud unpleasant noises after the child sees the animals, the child then began to scream and cry as soon as he saw the many different animals because he associated the animals to the loud scary noise that would follow.
Edward Thorndike (1905)
Thorndike’s law of effect theory states that if a situation ends in a good consequence/ response , if repeated, the person will then do the exact same things to continue eliciting the same response. Although if a situation occurred and the consequence/ response was a bad one, if repeated, the person would try multiple things until the response given is a positive one.
B.F. Skinner's Walden Two (1948)
Skinner's novel described a utopian society ran on behaviorist principles. The novel expresses that all living organisms behavior is a result of their environment and that by changing certain variables a utopian society could be possible. The methods detailed in the novel are now referred to as applied behavior analysis.
Clark Hull’s Principles of Behavior (1943)
The Principles of Behavior expressed Hull’s analysis of animal learning and conditioning. Simply it expressed in biological terms: Organisms suffer deprivation; deprivation creates needs; needs activate drives; drives activate behavior; behavior is goal directed; achieving the goal has survival value. His theory is based off Pavlov’s law of conditioning.
Albert Bandura's Social Learning Theory (1963)
Bandura's theory states behavior is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning. I also states that observational learning could not transpire unless cognitive processes were at work. Children observe the people around them behaving in numerous ways. A child will behave in a way which it believes will earn approval because it desires approval. Positive or negative reinforcement will have little impact if the reinforcement offered externally does not match with an individual's needs. Reinforcement can be positive or negative, but the important factor is that it will usually lead to a change in a person's behavior. Bandura publsihed his finding in a book titled "Social Leaning Theory and Personality development".
B.F. Skinner's Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1971)
Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (1958)
A journal predominantly composed of the results of experiments pertinent to the behavior of individual organisms as well as analytical articles and theoretical contributions. The journal is still actively in use today and can be accessed through its online database.
The book discusses that the belief in free will and moral independence obstructs the ability to use scientific methods to modify behavior in order to build a superior society. The book promotes Skinner’s philosophy of science, the knowledge of human behavior, his conception of determinism, and what he refereed to as "cultural engineering".