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Introduction to Political Science - Lecture IV: Power, Legitimacy, and Authority
Transcript of Introduction to Political Science - Lecture IV: Power, Legitimacy, and Authority
Authority Legitimacy Three types of authority Traditional
Charismatic Beyond Political Science, what is power? POWER Cars, light, scent, piquant Etymology: potis> potere> podir> povoir> pouvoir> pouair> power! Why does it come from French? Back to Political Science: What is power? “Whatever some hypocritical ministers of government may say about it, power is the greatest of all pleasures. It seems to me that only love can beat it, and love is a happy illness that can't be picked up as easily as a Ministry.” -Stendhal "de l'Amour," 1822 Who has power? Who does not? Do those who have it owe anything to those who do not? What beliefs lead to its distribution? Power is to Political as money is to Economics The essential unit What's one difference between the two? Would life be better if you could quantify people's power levels? How would you go about it? No units, but three forms Influence Coercion Authority Influence What is influence? Any examples? A question of will. Ex: Tom Sawyer Why would someone willingly do what you want them to do? Different appeals: Intellect Passions Self-interest Group solidarity There is overlap How do you use influence? Intelligence, knowledge, research Diffusion Bribery Government
Influence 4EVAH The irony of government and influence What could you want from the government? Who is the Prime Minister of Canada? What party is he in? How does he get influenced? How did he get to power? What would being a minority change? Flip it. COERCION Influence is not the only form of power What is coercion? Examples? Roll Call Forms of coercion: Violence Imprisonment Monetary penalties Lock-Outs/Strikes What about closer to home? Grades Embarrassment Social Standing Coercion: Using a negative outcome Ex: Star Wars Is it used on its own? What's manipulation? Lying vs. Omission Manipulation in politics:
Sophists vs. Socrates ...Back to coercion Means & Ends... Legal coercion Who has a legal monopoly?
+ examples Why legal monopoly? Exceptions? Self-defence Hospitals Strikes/Lock-Outs Coercion: Strikes/Lock-Outs How are strikes and lock-outs a form of coercion? Why are they legal? Good government Good government? Beware cognitive bias! Speaking of the government, can you use coercion against the government? What will happen? Liberal democracies vs. authoritarian regimes Can there be too much coercion? Then how did Nazi Germany happen? Authority.
More on that in a moment. Coercion: Power and Tool Karl von Clausewitz? "War is a mere continuation of politics by other means." Mao Zedong? "Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun. Our principle is that the Party commands the gun; the gun shall never be allowed to command the party." Authority What is authority? Ex: parents and young children Ex: Street lights Natural vs. Public Authority Authority _________Legitimacy_________Obligation
Right of command__Belief in rightness____Sense of duty Three forms: Traditional Legal Charismatic Political Ads What does the government use
coercion for? Different from influence and coercion Why do we obey? There's also morality and ethics. What's the difference? What's governmental power without legitimacy? Compare Canada to Syria Legitimacy Not just a social relationship, also beliefs and values,
which can change. Ex: Arab Spring How does our democracy work with all this? Avoids power without legitimacy What is required to get power without legitimacy? What do you get when you combine legitimacy with power? Authority. What are traditions? Which traditions do you follow? How would this apply to authority? Different rules of hereditary nobility Respect for traditions provides legitimacy,
as does family Contemporary examples? Legal Authority What does legal mean? What does legal authority mean then? Rule of law, not men Rule of law in Canada? In the world? Modernization
Revolutions 1688 Glorious American 1776 French 1789 1911 Chinese or Xinhai Russian 1917 Do you think the Arab Spring follows a transition to legal authority? Why? Charismatic Authority What is charisma? Extraordinary personal qualities Originally, charisma was a theological term. What does theology mean? Charisma meant grace or spiritual favour. Who are some famous charismatic leaders? Jesus, Mohamed, Joan of Arc, Louis Riel Charismatic Authority Is it only through a special relationship with god? What are examples of non-divine charismatic leadership? Adolf Hitler What about celebrities? Charismatic Authority What might herald charismatic authority? Times of crisis perhaps Ex: Joan of Arc Hitler Louis Riel Charismatic Authority Desperate times call for desperate measures. What do you do after you are no longer desperate? You normalize your power. Ex: Ruhollah Khomeini Review Let's take a look at what we just learned. 33/34 32/34 31/34 30/34 29/34 28/34 27/34 24/34 23/34 22/34 21/34 19/34 18/34 17/34 16/34 15/34 14/34 13/34 12/34 10/34 9/34 8/34 7/34 6/34 5/34 4/34 3/34 Ex: Jean Chrétien