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Microprocessor Architecture

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Varun Rathore

on 22 October 2013

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Transcript of Microprocessor Architecture

Microprocessor Architecture
How does it work?
What is it?
The microprocessor architecture refers to the layout of components within the computer’s central processing unit.
By: Andrew, Urvaksh , Varun
Who created the
first microprocessor?

• Intel was responsible for inventing the first microprocessor
• It was called Intel 4004 and is known for being the world’s first universal processor.
• It was a 4-bit, 16-pin microprocessor that operated at 740KHz
• It was invented by engineers Stanley Mazor, Federico Faggin and Ted Hoff

What components are inside?
Arithmetic Logic Unit ( ALU )
Input/Processing/Output ( IPO )
Data Registers with Buffers
Memory Locations
And much more that make this circuit run!
Where and when
was it created?

Intel 8085 ( i8085)
Difference between Microprocessor and Micro-controller
How did it start?
Started out in 1930/40s
Alan Turing, Claude Shannon, and John von Neumann derived theories for how the architecture should work
Pioneers like Conard Zuse and Eckert & Mauchley made Zuse 1-3 (Z3) and ENIAC respectively

Share many common features like fetching instructions from memory and execute instruction
Microcontrollers are made to perform a specific task whereas microprocessors are used for general use
Microprocessors only contain CPUs whereas microcontrollers incorporate CPU, RAM, ROM and other peripherals in itself.
How has it evolved over the years?
Started out with ENIAC (1943) - programmed with a plug board
In early fifties, computers had memory systems made of magnetic tape/ cathode-ray tubes
Texas Instruments (TI) made first silicon transistor (54)
TRASDIC was first to create the transistorized computer
Early sixties marked the beginning of mainframes
With mainframes, architecture of processors were made and later Intel 4004 was created
Intel later created the first microprocessor computer off the Intel 8008 called the Micral in the year 1973
In 1976, Apple 1 was the first single board computer

And lastly, Apple II had the first printed motherboard
The PC begins in 1980's
Evolution through the years
The IBM Power series the first Superscalar microprocessor
Hitting year 2000, mankind realizes that we cannot rely on a single core performance

The Apple II
The Micral
The 1970's marked the start of the minicomputer
Applications of Microprocessors
Used in single board micro computers
Personal Computers
Computer aided design
The Intel 4004 was first advertised on November 15th 1971.
It was first designed by Federico at Fairchild Semiconductors and then finished in Intel.
It was first used in the Busicom calculator
Stands for Arithmetic Logic Unit
It carries out arithmetic and logic operations
It has direct access to the main memory and all of the input/output devices
Inputs and outputs flow along an electronic path to the ALU
Sends the address to memory
Sends/receives Data
from memory
To the memory
Based off the clock pulse
Restarts the program counter
A Tri-State buffer
A latch that can increment
by a set of ones or it can reset
Can hold values
from comparisons made by ALU
Controls all other components
Preforms arithmetic
functions needed
converts the bits stored in instruction register
Stores what is being executed/decoded
A variable resistor
Similar to the ones found in RAM
Determines if Data or Address
Full transcript