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Middle Ages to Revolution
Transcript of Middle Ages to Revolution
DURING THE 16th TO LATE 18th CENTURIES. That every inch of a country's soil be utilized for agriculture, mining or manufacturing.
That all raw materials found in a country be used in domestic manufacture, since finished goods have a higher value than raw materials.
That a large, working population be encouraged.
That all export of gold and silver be prohibited and all domestic money be kept in circulation.
That all imports of foreign goods be discouraged as much as possible.
That where certain imports are indispensable they be obtained at first hand, in exchange for other domestic goods instead of gold and silver.
That as much as possible, imports be confined to raw materials that can be finished [in the home country].
That opportunities be constantly sought for selling a country's surplus manufactures to foreigners, so far as necessary, for gold and silver.
That no importation be allowed if such goods are sufficiently and suitably supplied at home. TENETS OF MERCANTILISM - AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY
- SELF-SUFFICIENT COMMUNITIES THAT PRODUCES EVERYTHING "IN-HOUSE" (LOCALLY).
- TAX SYSTEM ALLOWS GOVERNMENT TO REGULATE INDIVIDUAL ACCUMULATION OF RICHNESS. ECONOMICAL PRINCIPLES 500 to 1500 a.C - FEUDAL LORDS ACCUMULATE WEALTH BUT HAVE NO KNOWLEDGE OF PRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY.
- PEOPLE CANNOT ACCUMULATE WEALTH BUT HAVE KNOWLEDGE OF PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION TECHNIQUES. WHY? THIS SYSTEM ENDED - Crusades open the roads to the East (1096 to 1204 a.C).
- Bubonic Plague (1347 a.C) challenges the concept of good behavior good reward. Kills two thirds of the population.
- The idea of death becomes present in the minds of the people.
- Religious turmoil stirs the mind of scholars and priests that criticize the absolute authority of the Church.
- New Technologies give way to population increase and new forms of travel.
- Lords loose power as cities grow, markets return and education improves.
- Kings regain their absolute power through commercial enterprise and national crises. - RELIGION LOOSES POWER OVER A
CENTURY OF CONSTANT CHALLENGES
- FINANCIAL REVOLUTION IN THE FORM OF NEW AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGIES AND NEW MARKETS BRING CHANGE TO THE FEUDAL AGE.
-CITIES GROW AS POPULATIONS INCREASE.
- KINGS CLAIM "DIVINE RIGHT" TO RULE. - Christians were not allowed to make money without working.
- The only way to make money out of nothing was through loans (prestamos) and the charge of Interests.
This was known as "usury".
Only Jews could be usurers because their religion did not prohibit this.
- Jews were not allowed to participate in the Feudal Political and Economic System.
They lived in isolated places known as Ghettos. JEWS AND THE BANKING SYSTEM WHY ELSE? FEUDAL POLITICAL AND
ECONOMIC SYSTEM IN ESSENCE - The system emerged in an isolated world of inequality that needed land and work in order to survive.
- There was a religious principle of Hierarchies. Every role in the society was predetermined by God. This system supported this idea.
- Taxes kept societies under control while paying for social requisites such as war (fortresses, soldiers and weapons) and tribute to more powerful states.
- The people spent generations living in a self-sufficient, isolated world capable of surviving. Which was the point.
- The people learn different agricultural, metallurgical and engineering techniques. Slowly guilds are created. SO... WHAT WAS THE SYSTEM FOR? AS YOU KNOW:
- The Feudal Economic System was replaced.
- The new system was based on Markets.
- Trade, which was minimal during the middle Ages, started to grow as cities regained importance.
- Because of trade and cities Governments started to return to a "centralized" system.
-This gave power to kings once more.
- Kings (the State) started to accumulate wealth.
- Colonies were established as sources of raw materials and riches like gold and silver. SO... WHAT HAPPENED? Colonies were established using two models:
Based on land to inhabit.
Based on Resources. COLONIES AS SOURCES OF WEALTH THE ENGLISH MODEL:
- English conquerors had no empire to face in the Americas but encountered huge Culture in India.
- They established commercial routes based on resources but saw America as a haven (sanctuary) to inhabit and India as a source of wealth.
- Eventually they populated North America establishing colonies that meant to give a better life to protestant families; usually merchants.
- In India they replaced Indian government and used indians (from India) as a source of labor.
- Native Americans were not included in society.
- Natives were not christened (made christian) and were eradicated from most areas of North America. LAND TO INHABIT: GOVERNMENTS TO REPLACE - The Spanish model focused on resource extraction.
- The model saw the colonies as a source of riches.
- Natives, after being decimated (reduced) by illness and war, became the targets of the Church.
- Natives were forced to forget their gods and become christians.
- The Spanish used the model of the "Reconquista" to incorporate Natives into the new social orders of the Americas. They integrated the Natives to Spanish society. BASED ON RESOURCES: INTEGRATION
OF NATIVES AS CHRISTIANS "The Spanish system encompassing the AUDIENCIA was extractive and exploitative, relying heavily on cheap native labor. Domestic industry was constrained during the colonial period... the colony functioned as the source of primary materials and the consumer of manufactured goods, a trade pattern that tended to enrich the metropolitan power at the expense of the colony. *" THE COLONIAL ECONOMY IN THE SPANISH COLONIES * The Colonian Economy. (1998). Retrieved August 27, 2012, from http://www.mongabay.com/history/colombia/colombia-the_colonial_economy.html - This system was established by the Spanish Audiencia based on the ideas of Mercantilism.
-It was used for 250 years and, in some ways, continues to be in use today. The new system was based on five (5) things: A NEW SYSTEM WAS CREATED 1: Rebirth of Trade.
2: Rising national states and Nationalism.
3: Constant rivalry between states.
4: Discovery of resource-filled colonies.
5: Economic ideas that take into account the state as an organism that controls and regulates trade. THE NEW SYSTEM: MERCANTILISM - THIRTY YEARS' WAR (1618 to 1648): European rivalries result in war for territory and religion.
- SEVEN YEARS WAR (1756 to 1763): European rivalries end in war for political alliances and territory. HISTORICAL CONTEXT
THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR - THE SEVEN YEARS WAR - Population loss
- Trade is disrupted
- Agriculture is disrupted
- International Politics improve RESULT OF THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR WHAT HAPPENED? - France gained German territory and was paid tribute.
- German states lost territory and had to give tribute to France.
- France was strengthened while Spain and the Holy Roman Empire (German States) were weakened.
- A new method of peace negotiation was created. - Population loss
- European rivalries are reenforced
- France and England continue a life long rivalry that begun in the HUNDRED YEARS' WAR (1337 to 1453 a.C).
- All mayor European powers went to war.
- Russia participated in a European war for the first time. THE RESULT OF THE SEVEN YEARS' WAR THE IDEA OF A CATHOLIC EMPIRE
THAT RULED MOST OF EUROPE WAS ABANDONED EUROPEAN STATES WERE RECOGNIZED AS A SERIES OF INDEPENDENT STATES EACH EUROPEAN STATE WAS ESSENTIALLY EQUAL TO OTHERS THIS MARKED THE BEGINNING
OF THE MODERN STATE SYSTEM 500 to 1500 a.C WHAT HAPPENED? - Territory in Europe did not change.
- Colonial territories changed drastically.
- England was the great victor.
- France lost most of its North American and Indian territories to England. The Seven Years' War was a global military war between 1756 and 1763, involving most of the great powers of the time and affecting Europe, North America, Central America, the West African coast, India, and the Philippines. AN 18th CENTURY WAR In the historiography of some countries, the war is alternatively named after combats in their respective theaters:
- the French and Indian War (North America, 1754–63)
- Pomeranian War (Sweden and Prussia, 1757–62), Third Carnatic War (Indian subcontinent, 1757–63)
- Third Silesian War (Prussia and Austria, 1756–63). - Instead of killing and exiling (pushing away) the society being conquered, the Spanish, because of their high religious morality, tried to convert people into Christianity.
- This meant that the people being conquered would be INTEGRATED into Spanish society, forced to follow Spanish law and forced to become Christians.
- This "humane" model of Conquest was first used when the Spanish kings pushed the Muslims away from Spain in the period known as the "Reconquista".
- Muslim work force and knowledge was very valuable to Spanish culture and allowed them to rise aove other nations of Europe.
- In America, the abundance of resources and new economical models pushed Spain to Inflation and decay. RECONQUISTA:
a model of conquest One of the key things about Absolutism and Mercantilism... ONE OF THE KEY THINGS... - Absolutism means the absolute rule of one man over a society.
- Commerce is broken down into internal and external markets.
- Markets determine the flow of resources from one hand to another. External commerce might mean national resources leaving the country.
- As head of the state, the king would want to control all aspects of commerce given that through this control he can accumulate riches.
- Kings were desperate for wealth because of the constant fighting between the states.
- The "Audiencia" was one of these measures of control. CHANGED TO... - During the Feudal Age, Feudal Lords had great power.
- Kings sometimes had to rely on them and this meant loss of authority and power.
- Some Feudal Lords tried to kill the king in order to become King themselves. FEUDAL LORDS AND THE KING - After the rise of cities this changed.
- Because a lot of people lived in cities the kings could control them more easily.
- Power was centralized once more.
- Kings started to control Feudal Lords by applying laws and enforcing them through the use of armies and the support of Church ideals.
- Eventually Kings claimed "Divine Right" to rule.
-This meant the end of Feudalism. In some parts it took more time to happen than in others. Mercantilism was a series of political and economical ideas that ruled world trade for 250 years. - Mercantilism meant the perpetuation of a monarchic state in which the King, a figure of absolute control, was perpetuated.
- It also meant the continuous and ever-growing rivalries between the European States: specially those with colonies in other parts of the world.
- Because Mercantilism worked based upon the authority of the King or head of State, monopolies emerged.
- In some countries Monopolies staggered (slowed) the advancement of production techniques, like Spain with its guild system.
- Mercantilism supported the idea of having colonies as centers of raw materials. This help mantain the idea of Natives and in-borns as lesser members of European societies. WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT! During the Age of Absolutism, which coincides (obviously) with the age Mercantilism was in use, many nations had supreme rulers like:
Spain: Philip II (1527 to 1598)
France: Louis the XIV (1638 to 1715)
Austria: Maria Theresa (1717 to 1780)
Prussia: Frederick the Great 1712 to 1786)
Russia: Peter the Great (1672 to 1725) SO... WHAT HAPPENED? For this to happen many kings before them had to "pave the way" for futur generations of kings to have Absolute power. Absolute rulers wanted to control everything in their States. This meant the control of national Economy with a pursuit to gain more wealth in the form of Gold and Silver. THIS MEANT CONSTANT RIVALRIES AND WAR BETWEEN EUROPEAN STATES... BUT ALSO GREAT ECONOMICAL WEALTH COMPARED TO OTHER NATIONS STILL UNDER THE FEUDAL SYSTEM! Russia, one of the Super Powers during WW2, was still under a feudal system while European States lived the Renaissance, Age of Explorations and birth of Mercantilism (15th to 17th centuries). THE CASE OF RUSSIA - The mongols had occupied Russian Territory for many centuries.
- Ivan the Terrible (1462 to 1505) took advantage of the disolving "Golden Horde" of the Mongols (the Great Empire of the Khan), and more than doubled the territories of Russia.
- Peter the Great (1672 to 1725), a member of the Romanov family, brought great changes to Russia.
He succeded in "Westernizing" Russia (make into a European-like Nation). By the end of the 16th century Russia was transformed into a multiethnic, multidenominational and transcontinental state. WHY? CHANGES IN EUROPE! - Competition required nations to participate in the world markets.
- Wolrd markets ussually meant war between the states.
- Constant competition kept the societies under the constant danger of war.
- Famine and poor internal conditions meant suffering for the people.
- Lack of organisation meant the downfall of societies like Spain.
- An understanding of Economy was required but not present.
-Enlightenment ideas started to change the people's mentality towards their governments (their kings). CONSEQUENCES OF WESTERNIZATION? - Some kings used the ideas of the Enlightenment to rule. They were known as the "Enlightened Despots". TIMELINE: Sixth to Seventeenth Century! 511 - Clovis ( a Frankish king) unites
Franks under Christian Rule. Polytheistic
religions are banned. 500 a.C EUROPE MUSLIM WORLD 600 a.C 700 a.C 732 a.C - Charles Martel Stops Muslim Invasions. 622 a.C - Muhammad Unites Arab peoples
under the rule of Islam. Polytheistic religions
are banned. 730 a.C - Muslims expand vastly and
enter the Iberian Peninsula
(Portugal and Spain). 800 a.C - Charlemagne (Charles the Great) is crowned
Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by the Pope in Rome. 800 a.C Circa 800 a.C - Algebra books are written.
Muslim Knowledge finds new heights. More and more cultures begin to convert to Islam. 900 a.C 900 a.C - Outside invasions by vikings,
Magyar and Muslims spur growth of Feudalism.
Kings loose power to Feudal Lords and Church. Circa 1000 a.c - Muslims Scholars, who preserved
Greek medical works an other books, share them with Europeans. 1000 a.C 1093 - The "Holy War" (Crusades) Begin.
An attempt to retrieve the Holy Land from the
Muslim Turks. 1100 a.C 1100 a.C - Muslim literature and culture
flourishes. New trade routes established with the East.
- Muslim Turks continue to expand towards Byzantium. 1200 a.C 1215 a.C - In England King John
approves Magna Carta. The beginning of the Parliamentary system. 1300 a.C 1347 a.C - Bubonic Plague strikes Europe. 1400 a.C 1500 a.C 900 a.C - Turks begin to convert to Islam. Soon they rule over Anatolia, very close to the Byzantine Empire. 1300 a.C - Osman founds Ottoman State.
This is the Birth of the Turkish Ottoman Empire. 1453 a.C - Ottoman Turks capture the city of Constantinople. They rename it Estambul. The Empire continues to weaken until the XXth century when it becomes the country of Turkey after WWI. 1300 a.C - Renaissance begins in Italy. 1455 a.C - Gutenberg Bible is printed. 1534 a.C - Henry VII becomes head of Anglican Church in England. Breaks ties with Rome. 1555 a.C - Peace of Augsburg ends religious wars in Germany. 1522 a.C - Lutherans bring change to Europe.
Reformation brings German and European states into war. 1600 a.C 1492 a.C - Discovery of America by Europeans. CONCEPTUAL TIMELINE:
according to European History MIDDLE AGES REFORMATION ABSOLUTISM Mercantilism 1700 a.C 1800 a.C 1900 a.C 1618 a.C -Thirty Years' War 1756 a.C - Seven Years' War 1680 a.C - The Glorious Revolution SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION ENLIGHTENMENT FRENCH REVOLUTION RENAISSANCE 1789 to 1799 a.C -
French Revolution INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1776 a.C - American Revolution TIMELINE FEUDALISM ABSOLUTISM / MERCANTILISM REVOLUTIONS