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AP Gov- Ch 20 Presentation

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Jose A

on 10 January 2013

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Transcript of AP Gov- Ch 20 Presentation

Chapter 20- National Security Policy-Making High-Stakes Issue Defense policy decisions are influenced by every aspect of political contention:
Internal concerns

At the center of policy is a 'mission statement' about what America's goal is to defend
Currently 'America requires sufficient resources to win a single major conflict, defend against new threats, and conduct its occupation actions around the world.' Spending Defense spending takes up 1/5th of the total federal budget and employs 2 million civilian and military workers.
There is an argument that a nation must decide between guns and butter' -- a trade-off between social spending and defense spending.
- However, there is little evidence to support that military and domestic spending are dependent on each other. Differences in Defense Policy The main difference between conservatives and liberals concerning defense policy is its application.
Conservatives support pure military readiness, citing the Iraq and Gulf Wars as proof of possibility for major single conflicts

Liberals argue that the Pentagon wastes money and that the best defense for a nation is a strong economy with heavy investments in health and education. Recent Trends The U.S. saw a marked reduction in defense spending after the decay of the Soviet Union lessened immediate tensions.

This immediately reversed after the events of 9/11 with a massive upswing.

The U.S. currently spends more on defense than the next 15 biggest spenders combined. Application of Defense Funds The U.S. defense budget emphasizes quantity of military resources:
nuclear superiority
world's only 'blue-water' navy
massive airpower for global power projection
as well as quality:
advances in communication and information technology to respond to and coordinate events and procedures worldwide. Changes in Agenda Military competition is decreasing in level of significance while economic competition is increasing

Despite the U.S.'s strength militarily and economically, it is easily countered by other nations' actions
Dependency on foreign trade puts us at the mercy of other countries' markets and affairs
Massive trade deficit
Turmoil in the Middle East affecting gas prices Our military power avails us little against certain kinds of attacks
While the U.S. is the only remaining military superpower, this does not protect us from nonstate attacks such as terrorist strikes
Because of its superpower status, the U.S. is also expected to act as a police nation outside of its contribution to UN Peacekeeping forces.
Even U.S. citizens expect the administration to act against foreign injustice and human rights violations Nuclear Proliferation Due to the spread of technology, U.S. officials have been inclined to become more assertive about preventing nuclear proliferation. Attempts to 'defang' Iran and North Korea, two
rogue states that pose a large threat to their neighbours and the U.S., have been unsuccessful partially due to opposition by Russia and China
The focus now is on preventing the usage of these weapons. International Economy No nation is isolated anymore; interdependency is the rule of life
America's economy is only as strong as its trading partners and the ease of cross-borders trade and finance
International Money Fund: organization of 185 countries meant to stabilize currency exchange and the world economy
1997-1998: Several Asian countries' currency weakened, threatening to force them to default. The IMF stabilized them with loans of more than $100 billion, successfully avoiding chaos in the international economy. Largest American exports include grain, aircraft, and services.
As well, the US relies on its foreign tourism and students to bolster its revenue.
Tariffs are now a thing of the past due to retaliation tariffs on American goods
However, we now use quotas, subsidies, and quality specifications to limit imports.
Quotas and limits on importation of steel and Japanese cars to protect jobs North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): Signed by Bush in 1992 with Canada and Mexico, this agreement eliminated most
tariffs and trade impediments between North American nations. Balance of Trade Ratio of what is paid for imports to what is earned from exports.

In 2005, the U.S. trade deficit was $726 billion.
The deficit weakens the buying power of the dollar against foreign currencies, driving up prices.
This has made the U.S. more attractive to foreign manufacturing (much like our own outsourcing) and investment. Energy Middle East, especially Saudi Arabia, controls nearly half of the world's recoverable oil.
U.S. oil from Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Alaska does not meet our needs; we import more than 60 per cent of our oil.
This influences policy decisions in the Middle East, such as responding to the invasion of Kuwait in 1990. Foreign Aid The U.S. often provides aid to developing countries for multiple reasons ranging from humanitarian to political.
Often takes the form of grants and loan credits, good interest, and loan forgiveness.
Military aid is another significant area, especially to Israel, Turkey, Egypt, and Greece.
Foreign aid is not very popular with American citizens.
It is believed to enrich the few without helping the poor.
Though the U.S. devotes a smaller share of its GDP to foreign aid, it provides more aid from private organizations. By: Jose Altamirano, Anne Creech, Tyler Deeds, Mason Logan, Lucas Van Gorder, Kati Waldrop Understanding National Security Policymaking
- America's foreign policy is intertwined with our democratic form of government.
-There is little evidence that foreign policies at odds with the public can be sustained.
- The system of separation of powers allows for our foreign policy to be made in a stable manner. The president may take the lead in setting our foreign policy, but ultimately Congress ratifies treaties and sets funds.
- America's international relations are so complex and global that, by nature, the scope of government in these areas is large.
- Since the U.S. has foreign policy interests around the world, the scope and strength of the gov't must be substantial. Instruments of Foreign Policy Unlike domestic policy, foreign policy depends on three tools: military, economic, and diplomatic.- The military has been used to fight in wars and conflicts all over the world.
- The United States has only been involved in a few full-scale wars. However, in recent years, the U.S. has sent limited military forces to different parts of the world to act in different ways.
- Ex: Kosovo, Somalia
- Economic tools are almost as important as those of war.
- Ex: Trade regulations, tariff policy.
- Studies show that a country’s economic -health is linked to its long-term nationa security.
- Diplomacy is the quietest instrument of influence. It’s the process by which nations carry peaceful relationships with each other. Actors on the World Stage - International organizations help bring the cooperation of many nations together to help solve world problems, such as peacekeeping and maintaining stable financial networks.
- The United Nations (UN) is the premier international organization. It contains 191 member nations.
- The UN’s real power comes from the Security Council, composed of 15 members, 5 of them permanent.
- The UN is best known for its peacekeeping missions, although not all have been successful.
- Other: IMF, World Bank
- Since WWII, regional organizations have proliferated. These are groups of nations bound by a treaty, often for military reasons.
- Ex: NATO, Warsaw Pact.
- Multinational Corporations (MNC’s) are private businesses that play a huge role in the international economy.
- MNC’s are often more powerful than the governments under which they operate and they have a strong say about government policy.
- NGO’s act like global interest groups, fighting for a cause.
-Ex: Greenpeace, Al-Qaeda. The Policymakers - The President is the main force behind foreign policy. The president negotiates treaties and declares executive agreements.
- The president combines constitutional powers with greater access to info and the ability to act with greater speed and secrecy than the other parts of government.
- The State Department is the main foreign policy and diplomatic arm of the government.
- The secretary of state is the key adviser on foreign policy.
- In recent times, presidents have found the State Dept. too bureaucratic.
- The Dept. of Defense is another key actor. It is referred to as “the Pentagon.”
- The Secretary of Defense is the president’s main advisor on military policy.
- The commanding officers of each of the armed forces constitute the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Military leaders are said to be war hawks, but they are no more likely than civilian advisers to push an aggressive military policy.

- The National Security Council, formed in 1947 by Congress, coordinates American foreign/military policy.

- The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was created after WWII to provide the government covert information. It has also gotten involved in conspiracy and meddling as well.
- Congress has the sole authority to declare war, raise the armed forces, and appropriate funds for national security activities. American Foreign Policy: An Overview
The Cold War - After WWII, the U.S. and the Soviet Union remained as the world’s two superpowers.
- The U.S. followed the containment doctrine, isolating the Soviet Union, “contain” its advances, and resist their advances peacefully but with force if necessary.
- The Truman Doctrine established U.S. support for countries threatened by communism.
- The 1950s were the height of the Cold War. McCarthyism spread and everyone was accused of being a commie.
- The Pentagon’s budget swelled, since the government wanted to ensure that the U.S. could compete militarily with the Soviets.
- Military-Industrial Complex, Arms Race.
- The U.S.’s main conflict during the Cold War was the Vietnam War.
- In 1964, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, authorizing President Johnson to do whatever he wished to stop communism in Vietnam.
- The Vietnam War resulted in large loss of life for the American forces. The public got tired of the war by 1968 and Saigon eventually fell to the communists in 1975. The Era of Détente - President Nixon supported a new policy, détente. Détente was a slow transformation from conflict thinking to cooperative thinking. It sought relaxation of tensions between the U.S. and the USSR.
- To that end, President Nixon became the first president to visit the People’s Republic of China. President Carter extended formal recognition.
- Détente soon ended after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. The Reagan Rearmament - In the 1980s, President Reagan sought an aggressive foreign policy with increased defense spending.
- Reagan saw the USSR as the “Evil Empire” that threatened the U.S. with their massive military spending.
- “Star Wars” The Final Thaw in the Cold War. - Starting in 1989, the U.S., led by President Bush I, embarked on a new foreign policy that tried to integrate the USSR into the world.
- The Cold War ended spontaneously and peacefully. Reforms started by Gorbachev were the beginning of the end for the Soviet Union. Throughout 1989-1991, various communist governments in Eastern Europe fell. The Soviet Union split into 15 different nations. The Berlin Wall fell in 1989. The War on Terrorism - The most worrying issue in national security since the end of the Cold War is the spread of terrorism.
- Terrorism has increased in intensity and quantity across the globe.
- Ex: 9/11, WTC attacks in ‘93, Iranian Hostage Crisis.

Afghanistan and Iraq
- After 9/11, the U.S., led by President Bush II, declared the War on Terrorism. In 2001, the U.S. launched an attack on the Taliban in Afghanistan. The Taliban were quickly defeated.
- In 2003, following claims that Iraq was hiding WMD’s, the U.S. launched an invasion of Iraq, quickly toppling Saddam Hussein.
- After the end of the main stage of operations in these two new wars, the U.S. has faced trouble in bringing stability and peace to the two nations.
- The War on Terrorism has forced the U.S. to rethink the basic tenets of American foreign policy.
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