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GCSE Crime and deviance
Transcript of GCSE Crime and deviance
Formal rules eg breaking laws Criminal statistics How do we explain crime and deviant behaviour? Non-sociological explanations Who is criminal? Formal social control When written rules and laws are broken, certain bodies in society enforce them or punish the people that break them Informal social control When unwritten rules are broken that people disapprove of, friends, family, religion and wider society react (this can be negative and positive) Of those crimes reported to the police and recorded by them, a quarter were detected and cleared up.
Only 3% of all crimes in England and Wales end up with a conviction.
1 in 15 women reporting a rape saw the rapist convicted Different ways crime is recorded Police recorded crime
Court and prison records of police cautions The 'dark figure of crime' The large gap for many offences betwen the amount of crime committed and that finally recorded by the police Deviance: any non-conformist behaviour which is disapproved of by society or a social group, whether it is illegal or not
Crime: a term to describe law-breaking behaviour Socially constructed? The official crime statistics are a result of a series of choices and decisions made by the people involved, such as victims, witnesses and the police. Witnessed Defined Reported Recorded Psychological Biological Sociological explanations Inadequate socialisation
The opportunity structure
Anomie Psychological explanations for criminal and deviant behaviour focus on personality traits of individuals e.g. impulsivity Biological explanations focus on looking for biological causes in individuals, e.g. Lombroso Hug a hoodie How would labelling account for Ryan? Males and crime The Chivalry thesis Class and crime Corporate and white collar crime Males and crime Men commit four crimes for every one we know about.
95% of the prison population are men.
Socialized to be tough?
Targeted by the police
More free time and independence Chivalry Thesis An explanation as to why women appear not to be committing as much crime as men:
Paternalism and sexism from the criminal justice system
Women commit less serious offences Females also may not commit as much crime because:
The stereotypes police have
The female roles - less independence than men
Commit less detectable offences Class and crime Working class people are more likely to be arrested and charged than those in other classes - why?
Poverty and unemployment
Stereotyping and prejudice
Informal social control
Lower working class values
White collar cime and corporate crime is under-represented as the 'crime problem'. White collar and corporate crime Who is racist? Black people are five times more likely than white people to be in prison.
In 2006, people classed as black in Britain made up 2.8% of the population but 11% of the prison population. Why? It could be explained in different ways:
The statistics reflect that one ethnic group commits more crime than another
Higher proportions of black people experience unemployment so the level of crime may be linked to poverty and relative deprivation
Statistics exaggerate the levels of crime in society because of biased policing – black people are more likely to be targeted, prosecuted, convicted and sentenced to longer than other ethnic groups. See the Macpherson Report finding racism in the Met. Media Stan Cohen 1973 - The amplification of deviance process Actual event is reported by the media The report raises concerns amongst the population who demand 'something is done' The police put more resources in that area More people are caught doing the illegal act The number of media reports increase Fear of crime People are more frightened of crime than they should be (rationally) In the British Crime Survey, 15% of people though they were fairly or very likely to be a victim of burglary in the next year, when in reality, their risk is 2%.
The media fuel this belief and fear, for example, rates of knife and gun crime are falling.