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Transcript of Animal Cloning
Luis Salgado What is animal cloning? How does it work? Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) Successful Cloned Animals What happened to these animals? Why clone? Bibliography The creation of an organism that is the exact genetic copy of another A somatic cell is any cell in the body other than the reproductive cells (sperm and eggs). Transfer human genes that produce useful proteins into animals
Example: Make sheep and cows produce the blood clotting agent factor IX to treat hemophilia or alpha-1-antitrypsin to treat cystic fibrosis and other lung conditions. 95% of cloning attempts fail
Shorter chromosomes, leading to shorter cell life and ultimately a shorter life span
Failure of vital organs
Problems with immune system
Increase in birth size http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/cloning/whatiscloning/
Twinning 1. Manually separate a very early embryo into individual cells 2. Allow each cell to divide and develop on its own. 3. Place into a surrogate mother, where they are carried to term and delivered. SCNT produces the same results as artificial embryo twinning, just a different method is use. Cloned animals could also be developed to produce human antibodies against infectious diseases and even cancers. Development of animal organs to be transplanted into humans Greater understanding of the development of the embryo and of aging and age-related diseases.
Cloned mice become obese, though their offspring do not and are normal.
Cloning could be used to create animal models of diseases, which could lead to further progress in understanding and treating those diseases. 1. Extract a somatic cell from an adult organism. 2. Transfer the nucleus from the somatic cell to an egg cell. 1 Carp
8 Fruit Flies
10 Goat 11 Horse
16 Pyrenean ibex
19 Rhesus Monkey
21 Water Buffalo
22 Wolf 3. The egg cell begins to act like a fertilized zygote which develops into an embryo. 4. Implant the embryo into a surrogate mother to carry to term and delivered. Moral and Ethical Concerns Cloning causes animal suffering
Food safety concerns
Conflict with religious and societal values regarding human cloning
Just "morally wrong"
Many feels it is too unnatural
Opposition to using embryonic stem cells
Why clone pets when there are many animals being euthanize each year Famous Animals A tadpole created in 1952 was the world's first clone.
Dolly the sheep was the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell.
Tetra the rhesus monkey was the first primate cloned.
Mules are sterile unless you clone them.
CC the cat was the first cloned pet.
The mouflon shows that cloning can rescue endangered species from extinction.
Pyrenean Ibex was the first extinct animal to be cloned
Kaguya the mouse was cloned using two female eggs. Human consumption Get animals off the endangered list Clone pets for families Therapeutic Cloning: creating a cloned embryo for the sole purpose of producing embryonic stem cells with the same DNA as the donor cell. These stem cells can be used in experiments aimed at understanding disease and developing new treatments for disease. Fun Facts Future of Cloning Wooly mammoth, saber-toothed cat, moa, ground sloths, wooly rhinoceros, irish elk, have many intact species
Some tasmanian tiger genes have been successfully expressed in a mouse.
The dodo can be reborn if scientists can locate enough DNA to create a clone that could be implanted in the eggs of closely related pigeons.
DNA extraction using remnant feathers and eggshells of Carolina parakeet and passenger pigeon can be used for cloning.
Baiji River dolphin became the first cetacean to go extinct in modern times and DNA can still be extracted from remains because of its recent extinction.
The huia's popularity as a mascot and symbol in New Zealand has started a project to clone and resurrect it.
Scientists have already completed a rough draft of the Neanderthal genome.