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Copy of Nature Vs. Nurture

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on 3 December 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Nature Vs. Nurture

Nature Vs. Nurture
Nature
Nativists: People who believe that people are born the way they are going to be. Born with behaviors and characteristics.

Nurture
Environmental factors are the causes of who you are.
Famous People
John Locke

Believed in 'Tabula Rasa'
Meaning we all start on a clean slate, only affected by the environment around us.
What is Nature vs. Nurture?
Convenient catch-phrase for the roles of heredity and environment in human development.
Scientists think that people behave as they do according to genetic predispositions or even "animal instincts." This is known as the "nature" theory of human behavior.
Scientists also believe that people think and behave in certain ways because they are taught to do so. This is known as the "nurture" theory.
Nature provides us with inherited abilities and traits.
Nurture takes genetic tendencies and molds them as we learn and mature.
John B. Watson
(1878-1958)
The father of behaviorism.
Believed that ones intellect, talent,
and behavior was due solely to the
environment in which he/she was
raised.
"The time seems to have come when psychology must discard all reference to consciousness."

Sir Francis Galton
(1822-1911)
Pioneer in mental testing.
Believed that intelligence and behavior were entirely due to heredity and was the originator of the term: Nature vs. Nurture
Some believe that sex and gender are determined biologically and that two sexes think and act differently.
This groups believes that gender is fixed and cannot be changed in cultures or throughtout time.
Nature has to do has to do with our biology.
Nurture deals with our socialization.
The social nurturing we receive from our parents, peers, school, and media.
Gender is essentially a product of socialization. Therefore family upbringing and social factors play a major role.
It explains why some adopt the oppisite gender role than their sex.
This also explains cultural variations in gender roles. People like to rely on their beliefs, values. and norms.
Some say that the physical characteristics are biological, but gender is socially generated.
They believe that men and women are taught openly and indirectly how to be men and women.
They also believe that gender streotypes are false.
Sex-Role Stereotyping
Beliefs, values, and norms are transmitted by agents of socialization, such as parents, peers, the education, and the media. These groups work collectively to reinforce certain behaviors and discourage others.
Sex role stereotyping leads to situations where individuals are expected to behave in certain ways associated with their sex.
Ex: Females are thought of as the main caretaker and males known as the main bread winner.
Bruce vs. Brenda
First gender reconstruction case study, conducted by Dr. John Money.
This case is clear evidence that nature outweighs nurture in Dr. Money's attempt to turn a male child into a feminine role.
Case Study
Beth Thomas
"Child of Rage"
At the age of 1, she was sexually molested and abused by her birth father which caused her to be filled with rage and a desire to hurt other people.
She began to masturbate at inappropriate times and hurt her little brother Johnathan.
Schizophrenia
The theory on how the genetic exposure for schizophrenia combines with environmental stressors to result in a person developing schizophrenia is known as a diathesis-stress model (a way to explain behavior through the connection of stress and life experience).
Scientists agree that both nature and nurture play a pretty big role in the development of schizophrenia.
Twin studies show a 50% chance of developing brain damage, which gives scientists great belief that the environment has much to deal with this.
Preventive measures may be taken by parents to prevent the likelihood of the child developing schizophrenia.
Albert Bandura
Social Learning Theory states that aggression is learned from the environment through observation and imitation.
Gender
In conclusion, both nature and nurture have impact on development. Studies have shown that heredity is a major factor in developmental similarities in twins who were separated. Studies have also shown that nutrition plays a major role in cognitive development.
Sources
www.genealogy.about.com/cs/geneticgenealogy/a/nature_nutre.htm
aloftyexistence.wordpress.com/2012/08/21/gender-nature-vs-nurture
ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3077034
schizophrenia.com/familyenv1.htm
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