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Our solar system

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Nick Gamble

on 15 September 2013

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Transcript of Our solar system



The Southern Cross (Crux):
two stars of Crux (Alpha and Gamma) may be used to mark south. One way to find south is by drawing a line through the Southern Cross and the Pointers - the line crossing at the South Celestial Pole. Maybe you would like to watch the video below to learn how to make your own telescope to look for the Southern Cross and find south?












Source: CSIRO Science by email, (2004)


Star Constellations - The Southern Cross:











"Crux" to astronomers,
best known constellation in the southern hemisphere,
smallest of the 88 modern constellations,
its five brightest stars (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Epsilon Crucis) can be found on the Australian flag, and flags of: Brazil, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and Samoa




Source: Kids.Net.Au, (2013)
What do you know about our solar system?
This resource will help guide you around our star and planets without getting lost!
You will find out:
what they look like,
how they got their names,
who discovered them, and
who used them for navigation.
There are also fun facts and things to do!
Welcome to OUTER SPACE!


The Southern Cross (Crux):

Australian Aboriginal astronomy - Crux, and another constellation (the Coalsack), mark the head of the 'Emu in the Sky'', and Crux also represents a possum sitting in a tree, and the sky deity Mirrabooka.




For thousands of years the night sky has been an inspiration to the Aboriginal people as a source of story-telling, especially for law-books, telling people how to live. They have used the sky as a calendar, for example, the position of the sun, and the rising of particular constellations at certain times can show the time of year/season; and as a way to know when it is time to move on to another area to find food.
Source: Norris, R. (2007)
Fun facts and things to do! - Part 2


This resource provides written and visual information, covering a key area of space sciences - the solar system. It is not intended as an "encyclopedia" of information, but to generate discussion and scientific enquiry.

This covers the three strands of the ANC for grade 5:
Science Understanding - Earth and space sciences (ACSSU078)
Science as a Human Endeavour - (ACSHE082)
Science Inquiry Skills - (ACSIS086)
<http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/Year5#learningarea=S

Teacher resources:

<http://www.kidsastronomy.com/index.htm - has many free teaching resources - worksheets, online assignments and educational astronomy games.

<http://www.planetsforkids.org/ - has articles explaining space and our solar system, an animated video of "The Solar System Song" for kids, and a solar system quiz.

<http://cse.ssl.berkeley.edu/AtHomeAstronomy/ - describes space science experiments/activities that could be performed in class, such as experimenting with light sources and shadows, and basic principles of rocketry.

MonkeySee.com has a number of good YouTube videos with basic
explanations of space science:




Our solar system:
Gods, Astronomers, Navigators and You!
EARTH:
named Gaea by ancient Greeks after the God of the Land.
largest of the terrestrial planets (Earth, Venus, Mercury and Mars).
sustained by the energy of the Sun - without it we would be a giant ice rock!
12742 km in diameter.
rotation period: 23 hours, 56 minutes.
surface: Water and basaltic rock.
moons: One.
MARS:
named by Romans after their God of War.
ancient Egyptian and Chinese astronomers recorded the movement of the "red planet" as early as 2000BC, and observation has continued with robots and the Hubble telescope.
6794 km in diameter.
orbit around Sun: 686.98 Earth days.
closest distance to Sun: 206 million km.
surface: Iron Dust (red) and basaltic rock.
moons: Two.
JUPITER:
largest planet in solar system.
a "gas giant".
named after King of the Roman Gods.
Galileo first to observe four moons orbiting Jupiter through a telescope - this discovery helped dispel Ptolemy's idea that Earth was the centre of the Universe.
142, 894 km in diameter.
orbit around Sun: 4332.59 Earth days.
closest distance to Sun: 740 million km.
surface: Hydrogen and water.
moons: 67.
SATURN:
named after Roman God of Agriculture.
second largest planet.
"gas giant".
gas rings or "handles" surrounding it made of dust, ice and rock - first observed by Galileo under telescope in 1610.
120,536 km in diameter.
orbit around Sun: 10,759 Earth days.
closest distance to Sun: 1.35 billion km.
surface: Methane, hydrogen, and helium liquids/gases.
moons: 62.
URANUS:
named after Ancient Greek God of the Heavens.
"gas giant".
only planet in our solar system to spin sideways.
not given planet status by early astronomers until confirmed by Herschel under telescope in 1781.
50,724 in diameter.
orbit around Sun: 30,684 Earth days.
closest distance to Sun: 2.75 billion km.
surface: Ice, hydrogen, and helium.
moons: 27 moons.
The Sun
All the planets in our solar system revolve around a star we call "The Sun".
In ancient times the Romans named this star "Sol" after one of their Gods. Through observation, astronomers such as Polish Nicolaus Copernicus (1543 AD) and Persian Omar Khayyam (1043 AD) hypothesised that the Earth orbits around the Sun. With use of a telescope, Italian Galileo Galilei (1609 AD) showed this to be true. He discovered planets have phases just like our Moon as they orbit the Sun.
Average: 57 million km from Sun
Mercury
MERCURY:
nearest to Sun.
the smallest planet.
Romans named "Mercury" after their messenger God.
observed by telescope first by Galileo.
known as "morning star" as brightest in morning.
4878 kilometres (km) in diameter.
orbit around Sun: 87.969 Earth days.
closest distance to Earth: 77 million km.
surface: Basaltic rock.
moons: None.
Venus
VENUS:
named by Romans after their God of Love.
discovered by telescope by Galileo.
thick atmosphere made it impenetrable to astronomers until the USSR landed a probe able to send pictures to Earth before melting under Venus' heat.
12092 km in diameter.
orbit around Sun: 365.3 Earth days.
closest distance to Earth: 38 million km.
surface: Basaltic rock.
moons: None.
Earth
Jupiter
Uranus
Neptune
NEPTUNE:
named after Roman God of Water.
discovered in 1846 by astronomers Galle and D'Arrest.
smallest of four "gas giants".
stormy.
49,528 km in diameter.
orbit around Sun: 164.79 years.
closest distance to Sun: 4.45 billion km.
surface: Hydrogen, helium, and methane.
moons: 13 moons.
Average 108 million km from Sun
Average 150 million km from Sun
Average 228 million km from Sun
Average 779 million km from Sun
Average 1.43 billion km from Sun
Average 2.88 billion km from Sun
Average 4.50 billion km from Sun
Average 5.91 billion km from Sun
Mars
Jupiter
Jupiter
PLUTO:
named after Roman God of the Underworld.
discovered by Tombaugh in 1930.
reclassified as a "dwarf planet" in 2006.
2302 km in diameter.
orbit around Sun: 247.84 Earth years.
closest distance to Sun: 4.4 billion km
surface: Ice and gases.
moons: Four.
Pluto
Saturn
Phases of the Earth's moon
...
Fun facts and things to do! - Part 1
Alpha 1 Crux (Acrux)
Epsilon Crux
Delta Crux
Gamma Crux
Beta Crux (Mimosa)
Pointers
Australia Brazil New Zealand Samoa Papua New Guinea
Fun facts and things to do! - Part 3
For teachers
Southern Cross
OUR SOLAR SYSTEM


Astronomy for Kids, (2013) retrieved from website 12 September, 2013 <http://www.kidsastronomy.com/

CSIRO Science by email, (2004) retrieved from website 12 September, 2013 <http://www.csiro.au/helix/sciencemail/activities/crux.html#>

Kids.Net.Au, (2013) retrieved from website 12 September, 2013 <http://encyclopedia.kids.net.au/page/so/Southern_Cross>

Norris, R. (2007) Australia Telescope National Facility, Australian Aboriginal Astronomy, retrieved from website 13 September, 2013
<http://www.atnf.csiro.au/research/AboriginalAstronomy/whatis.htm

Source: Astronomy for Kids, (2013)
Source: Astronomy for Kids, (2013)
Source: Astronomy for Kids, (2013)
Source: Astronomy for Kids, (2013)
Source: Astronomy for Kids, (2013)
Source: Astronomy for Kids, (2013)
Source: Astronomy for Kids, (2013)
Source: Astronomy for Kids, (2013)
Source: Astronomy for Kids, (2013)
Source: Astronomy for Kids, (2013)
References
<http://youtu.be/_201ttTSG30>
<http://youtu.be/MUR3hmW6Ydw>
Full transcript