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Marzano's Essential Nine

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olivia aveni

on 11 September 2013

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Transcript of Marzano's Essential Nine

Why use Marzano?
Marzano's Essential Nine
Dr. Robert Marzano
*He is a prominent figure in the education world.
*Author of 30 books and over 150 articles.
*Cofounder and CEO of Marzano Research Laboratory (MRL) in Colorado.
-->"MRL combines Dr. Marzano’s 40 years of educational research with continuous action research in all major areas of schooling in order to provide effective and accessible instructional strategies, leadership strategies, and classroom assessment strategies that are always at the forefront of best practice. "
*Renown educational reformer of the 21st century.
Marzano Makes Life...
simpler, for both the students and the teacher.

run more effective in daily instruction.

How Marzano Connects:
Marzano is...
*Engaging for all students.
*Able to effectively give classroom instruction without dismissing the students needs to learn.
*Able to cross grade levels.
*Able to be included in lessons without thinking about including it.
(Including a graphic organizer or a foldable into the lesson/giving feedback to a student/recognizing effort)
*Able to improve student achievement across all content areas
What Works in Classroom Instruction:
Identifying Similarities and Differences
Summarizing and Note Taking
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
Homework and Practice
Nonlinguistic Representations
Cooperative Learning
Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback
Generating and testing hypotheses
Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Feedback
Summarizing and Note Taking
Identifying Similarities and Differences
The ability to break a concept into its similar and dissimilar characteristics. This allows students to understand and often solve problems by analyzing them in a more simple way.

With Bloom's questioning, levels 4 (Analysis) and 6 (Synthesis) would be used to deepen students understanding and make connections with prior knowledge, given the concept topic.
What the Research Says:
"Students should compare, classify, and create metaphors, analogies, and non-lingustic or graphic representations."

Identifying similarities and differences yields a 45% gain for students understanding.
Venn Diagrams
Summarizing and note-taking skills greater a student's comprehension by asking the student to analyze a subject, exposing what is essential and put that into his/her own words.
What the Research Says:
"Students should learn to eliminate unncessary information, substitute some information, keep important information, write/revise, and analyze information. Students should be encouraged to put some information into own words."

Taking more notes is better than taking fewer notes, although notes verbatim is ineffective because it does not allow time for the student to process information.
Summarizing and note-taking yields a 34% gain in student understanding.
Interactive Notebooks allow students to be creative, independent writers while used for class notes, students interpret information.
Effort and recognition speak to the attitudes and beliefs of students, and teachers must show the connection between effort and achievement.

*Share stories about people who succeeded by not giving up.
*Have students keep a log of their weekly efforts and achievements to reflect on periodically.
*Find ways to personalize recognition.
*"Pause, Prompt, Praise"-If a student is struggling, pause to discuss the problem, prompt with specific suggestions, praise if performance improves.
*Honor diverse learning styles and encourage students to share their ideas
What the Research Says:
"Teachers should reward based on standards of performance; use symbolic recognition rather than just tangible rewards."

Providing recognition and reinforcing effort yields a 29% gain in student understanding.

Although not all students realize the importance of effort, they can learn to change their beliefs when the teacher emphasizes doing their best work.
Homework and Practice
Homework provides students with the opportunity to extend their learning outside of the classroom. Teachers should explain the purpose of homework to both the students and the parents.

With practice come mastery. Students will adopt skills as they learn them; speed and accuracy are indicators of the effectiveness of practice.
Effective Homework AFT:
Homework is most effective when it covers material already taught. It is not effective when it's used to reinforce skills learned in previous weeks or teaching complex skills.

Characteristics of Good Assignments:
*Provide clear instructions
*Can be completed successfully, without the parent
*Are not too long/can be completed within flexible time
*Use information and materials that are readily available
*Not unfinished class work OR used as punishment
*Reinforces skills taught that day
What the Research Says:
"Teachers should vary the amount of homework based on the grade level of the students (less at the elementary level, more at the secondary level), keep parent involvement in homework to a minimum (that you can control), state purpose."

"When learning is extended into the home, the students will gain: skills and abilities linked to class instruction, and a positive attitude about schoolwork.

Homework and practice yield a 28% gain for a student's understanding.
Bloom's Taxonomy
"Both Marzano and Bloom have created skills and strategies that impact teachers in how they deliver instruction in their classrooms. They have also helped teachers focus on how to help their students learn the content of their presentations."

Don't forget, Marzano!
Are there any of Marzano's Essential
Nine instruction strategies that you,
specifically, see happening inside
your classroom?

Would you use any of the strategies
listed inside your own classroom?
If so, which ones?
Highly Recommend!
Students take homework seriously when teachers:
*prepare written directions
*discuss the task with students
*integrate the assignments with classroom instruction
*give a grade with homework?
Goals for Our Students
Foundational Skills:
Basic Skills: Reading, Writing, Arithmetic/Math, Listening & Speaking
Thinking Skills: Creative, Decision Making, Problem Solving, Reasoning
Personal Qualities: Self-Esteem, Social Self-Management, Integrity, Honesty

Resources: Allocates Time, Money, Materials and Facility
Information: Acquires and Evaluates, Organizes and Maintains, Interprets and Communicates, Use computers to process
Interpersonal: participates as a team member, teaches others, negotiates
Purposes of GIVING Homework:
Practice-increases speed, mastery, or maintenance of skills
Participation-increases involvement of each student with tasks
Personal Development-builds student responsibility
Parent-Child Interaction: establishes communication
Public Relations-informs parents of what is taught in class
Policy-fulfills school/district directives regarding homework
Non-Linguistic Representations
Knowledge is stored in two forms: linguistic and non-linguistic (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, etc). The more students use both forms in class, the opportunity they have to achieve. The use of non-linguistic representations have proved to both stimulate and increase brain activity.
What the Research Says:
"Students should create graphic representations, models, mental pictures, drawings, pictographs, and participate in kinesthetic (hands-on) activities in order to assimilate knowledge."

Non-linguistic Representations yields a 27% gain in student understanding.
Visual Aids
Graphic Organizers
Writing Notebooks!
Physical Models
Cooperative Learning
Organizing students into cooperative groups allows students to have a positive effect on learning overall. Students should be able to work together on a problem and create a solution together, demonstrating team skills and effective communication.

No Catholic schools rows 24/7.
Kagan Strategies!
*Think, Pair, Share
*Numbered Heads

Debates, plays, science projects, reader's theatre, pass the pencil, group reports, etc.

Design group work around the core components of cooperative learning-positive interdependence, group processing, appropriate use of social skills, face-to-face interaction, and individual and group accountability.
What the Research Says:
"Teachers should limit use of ability groups, keep groups small, apply strategy consistently and systematically but not overuse. Assign roles and responsibilities in groups."

Cooperative Learning yields a 23% gain in student understanding.
Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback
Setting objectives can provide students with a direction for their learning. Goals should be easily understood by the students. They need to be easily adaptable and flexible to the students.

Feedback generally produces a positive result amongst students. Teachers can never give too much, however, they should manage the form that the feedback takes.
Objectives should be visible for all students to see. They need to be posted. Follow-up on the mastery of the objective after the lesson. (Insert OBJ pic)
What the Research Says:
"Teachers should create specific, but flexible goals, allowing some student choice. Teacher feedback should be corrective, timely, and specific to a criterion."

Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback yields a 23% gain in student understanding.
Generating and Testing Hypotheses
Enhancing students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge by engaging them in mental processes that involve making and testing hypotheses.

Deductive reasoning is the process of using a general rule to make a prediction.

Inductive reasoning is the process of drawing new conclusions based on information known or presented.
Techniques for generating ideas and testing hypotheses that are more deductive in nature seem to have a greater effect on achievement than inductive techniques.
*Find other ways to solve math problems
*Questioning the author of a book
*Provide students with templates for reporting their work, highlighting the areas in which they will be expected to provide explanations.
*Provide sentence stems for students, especially for young students, to help them articulate their explanations.
*Provide, or develop with students, rubrics so that they know that the criteria on which they will be evaluated are based on the quality of their explanations.

What the Research Says:
"Students should generate, explain, test, and defend hypotheses using both inductive and deductive strategies through problem solving, history investigation, invention, experimental inquiry, and decision making."

Generating and Testing Hypotheses yields a 23% gain in student understanding.
Using Structured Tasks
1. Explain the purpose of the system, the parts of the system, and the function of each part.
2. Describe how the parts affect each other.
3. Identify a part of the system, describe a change in that part, and then hypothesize what would happen as a result of this change.
4. When possible, test your hypothesis by actually changing the part or by using a simulation to change the part.
Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
Cues, questions, and advance organizers help students use what they already know about a topic to enhance further learning.
These tools should be analytical and focus on what is important. These are usually the most effective when presented before a learning experience.
Provide students with questioning strategies before each lesson:

Use graphic organizers to
help visualize knowledge.
What the Research Says:
"Teachers should use cues and questions that focus on what is important (rather than on unusual), use ample wait time before accepting responses, eliciting inference, and analysis. Advance organizers should focus on what is important and are more useful with information that is not well organized."

Cues, Questions and Graphic Organizers yield a 22% gain for student understanding.
Marzano Questions
Using the above progress
chart, students can track
how they well they feel
they have learned a
Lemov Strategies
Using questioning techniques and instructional strategies help the student maximize their learning time inside the classroom.
Full transcript