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Harlem Renaissance

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Damaris Tovar

on 10 April 2014

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Transcript of Harlem Renaissance

Harlem Renaissance
Literature
From the 1920s through the mid-1930s sixteen African American writers published more than fifty volumes of poetry and fiction.
Music
THE "FOUNDING FATHERS"
W.E.B. DuBois
(1868-1963)
Author and social activist
1925 article "A Negro Art Renaissance" celebrated the emergence of black people in creative arts.
Editor of the NAACP magazine
The Crisis,
he demanded full and immediate equality for blacks.

He challenged "Talented Tenth"-the most intelligent and accomplished African Americans-to work for the advancement of the entire race.
History
In the early 1900s, hundreds of thousands of African Americans took part in the Great Migration, moving from rural south into the industrial cities of the north.

Reasons for Great Migration:
Racism through Jim Crow Laws in the South
industrialization in the north opened doors for jobs

As more and more African Americans settled in Harlem, it became a meeting ground for writers, musicians, and artists.
Harlem Renaissance
James Weldon Johnson
An example of DuBois's Talented Tenth: teacher, poet, novelist, songwriter, newspaper editor, lawyer, and diplomat.
The first black executive secretary of the NAACP
Published the first analogies of traditional African American poetry and spirituals.
"The world does not know that a people is great," he wrote, "until that people produces great literature and art."
Alain Locke
In 1925 he published
The New Negro
, an anthology of essays, stories, and poems by young black writers.
The term "New Negro" was often used to describe the proud spirited younger generation of African Americans.

ART
• What did the 1920s’ great migration create among the American culture? Have we lost the blossoming culture of creativity and talent from the 1920s?
• How has the Harlem Renaissance impacted America’s current literature, art, and music? Have the themes of the Harlem Renaissance developed in our current literature, art, and/or music? How so?
• How can identity be expressed through art? What are the various forms of art that identity can be expressed through?
• What does the Harlem Renaissance tell us about the American dream? Who can achieve it?

Langston Hughes
Best known as a poet, also wrote plays, a novel, short stories, and an autobiography.
His first poem published,
The Negro Speaks of Rivers
, was featured in a 1921 edition of the NAACP's
The Crisis
magazine.
Zora Neale Hurston
An anthropologist and folklorist, she studied with the at Colombia University.
She used the music and stories she collected as a folklorist to inform her novels, plays and other books, including
Mules and Men
and
Their Eyes Were Watching God
.
Countee Cullen
He was born in Louisville, Kentucky, and raised by foster parents in New York. During his undergraduate career at New York University, Cullen's poetry was published in W.E.B. DuBois's magazine,
The Crisis
.
Cullen's poetry used traditional forms and methods that eloquently expressed the sentiments of African Americans during the 1900s.
Bessie Smith
She was known as the "Empress of the Blues," was one of the highest-paid black performers of her time.
She recorded more thank 150 songs and toured the country, thrilling audiences with her deep, expressive voice.
Many of Smith's songs spoke about her awareness as a strong, independent black woman.
Louis Armstrong
He moved from New Orleans to Harlem in 1924 to play in Fletcher Henderson's band.
His exciting and innovating trumpet solos made him an instant sensation.
He also popularized a new kind of jazz singing called scat.

"Duke" Ellington
He began his career as a jazz pianist and became the leader of of the first "big bands."
The Duke Ellington Orchestra played dance music at the hottest night clubs in Harlem.
Over the course of six decades, he produced more than 3,000 musical compositions, writing for stage productions, movies, ballet companies, and symphony orchestras.

Jazz
had first emerged in New Orleans in the early 1900s. During the Great Migration, it had traveled along with southern black migrants to northern cities, including Chicago, Kansas City, and New York City.
Jazz allowed performers to improvise, creating their own unique melodies and rhythms as they played.
Aaron Douglas
is often called the Father of African-American Art.
He was born in Topeka, Kansas, he studied fine art at the University of Nebraska.
His paintings combined the themes and simplicity of African American art with modern elements such as cubism.
He create covers for several popular magazines as well as the NAACP's
Crisis
, the Urban League's
Opportunity
, and the black literary journal
Fire!!
Jacob Lawrence
was born in New Jersey in 1917. His family moved to the Harlem area of New York City when he was a young teenager.
His art was influenced by leading African American artists like Augusta Savage, Charles Alton, and Aaron Douglas.
Lawrence was 23 years old when he completed his set of paintings from the Great Migration.
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