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Transcript of SPACE DEBRIS
- for :
- for : , with k>0 (correction for Rayleigh scattering) NASA Velocities
Average relative velocities:
Average collision velocities:
EXAMPLE: three objects with 1, 2 and 3 km/s relative to one another. Swiss Space Center photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Conclusion SPACE DEBRIS What is "space debris"? “Non-functional, man-made objects including fragments and elements thereof in Earth orbit or re-entering into Earth atmosphere”.ESA How has it arrived there? Destruction What is the hazard? Detection Where is it? - 1957: SPUTNIK
- 4900 rocket launches since then http://cienciaanmirandes.blogspot.com.es/2011/10/fenguyn-1c.html AP Photo/Chris O'Meara Kessler & Cour-Palais 1978 1997 Fuel tank, Delta II (George Town, Texas) Credits: NASA 2001 Titanium motor Delta II
(Saudi Arabian desert). http://sciencewikimedia.com/blog/2012/01/25/worst-space-debris-events-of-all-time/ - 10-cm object : catastrophic fragmentation
- 1-cm object : disable a spacecraft and penetrate the ISS shields
- 1-mm object could destroy sub-systems on board a spacecraft (ESA) - 1-kg object at 10 km/s: catastrophically breaking up a 1,000-kg spacecraft (National Academy of Sciences) - Ten times the energy of dynamite (relative velocity: 12 km/s) (Phipps et al. 2012) SPACE DEBRIS Manuel Lampón González-Albo Naím Ramírez Olivencia Impact rate on a particular spacecraft NASA wikipedia http://www.gotgeoint.com/archives/space-junk-starting-to-reach-mother-earth/ Feng Yun 1 C Iridium 33 ft. Kosmos 2251 Socorro (N.M),
Maui (Hawaii) and
Diego García (British Indian
Ocean Territories) Air Force Space Command NASA GEODSS (Ground Based-Electro_Optical Deep Space Surveillance) SST (Space Surveillance Telescope) EDDE (Electrodynamic Debris Eliminator), DARPA (USA) Clean Space One (Suisse) NASA It has been seen by chance...
SMEI (Solar Mass Ejection Imager ) wikipedia Mizuno et al. 2012 The Kessler syndrome exponential! Kessler & Cour-Palais 1978 THANKS! 7% operational spacecrafts
22% old spacecrafts
41% miscellaneous fragments
17% rocket bodies
13% mission-related objects Who and how can solve it? Cleaning from space Space Surveillance Network (SSN) Legislation Technical measurements Collision Avoidance Protocol NASA Spacecraft protection Astronauts Emergency Protocol Kearsley et al. (2005) Summary
1. Space debris knowledge
3. Solutions (who and how) - 10 known collisions - 20 in-orbit fragmentation events ESA/ESOC: Space Debris Office Space Agencies, consortia…..and other entities, like defence departments NASA (Top) 6.4 mm aluminum sphere impacting at ~7 km/sec. The target is 3.7 cm thick aluminum.
(Bottom) Same velocity impactor striking a simple Whipple shield with a front sheet thickness of 1.3 mm and a rear wall thickness of 3.2 mm separated by 10.2 cm. . Nov. 2011: “debris at 250 m. of the ISS”, refuge in Soyuz spaceraft (destroyed chinesse satellite ) postmission disposal - natural orbital decay (uncontrolled):
non-operational spacecraft and spent rocket
- controlled reentry (controlled):
non-operational spacecraft Bogota Word Press Popsci.com blABLA