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Arthropods and Echinoderms
Transcript of Arthropods and Echinoderms
Echinoderms Characteristics of Arthropods Crustaceans Chelicerates Spiders
Horseshoe Crabs A segmented body
Made from proteins and a carbohydrate called chitin.
appendage- structures such as legs that extended from the body. Characteristics of Echinoderms Spiny Skin
Water Vascular System
filled with fluid, carries out many essential body functions
Opens to the outside through a sievelike structure called madreporite.
Suction-Cup like Structures (tube feet)
Tube foot- a structure that operates much like a suction cup, has a sucker on the end, muscles pull the center of the sucker upwards forming a cup shape.
Hundreds of tube feet work together allowing them to walk and pull open shelled prey. Examples of Arthropods Typically have 2 pairs of branched antennae, 2 or 3 body sections, and chewing mouthparts called mandibles. Crabs
Barnacles Spiders and relatives They have mouthparts called chelicerae and 2 body sections, and nearly all have 4 pairs of walking legs. Uniramians Insects and relatives Uniramians have jaws, 1 pair of antennae and unbranched appendages. Centipedes
Praying Mantises Examples of Echinoderms Echinoderms Sea Urchins and Sand Dollars
Sea Stars (starfish) Insects What is an insect? They are divided into three parts:
thorax - with three pairs of legs attached
abdomen An arthropod with specific features Responses to stimuli Compound eyes detect small changes in color and movement. Chemical receptors for taste and smell on their mouthparts, antennae, and legs. Sensory hairs that detect slight movements in the surrounding air or water. Well developed ears that can hear far above human range. Adaptions for feeding: Three different types of mouthparts: Mandibles - used to saw and grind food. (ants) Tubelike mouthpart - used to suck up nectar. (moth) Spongelike mouthpart - used to lap up food. (fly) Body Symmetry and Unique Structures Arthropods Arthropods have Bilateral (left/right) symmetry. Echinoderms Most echinoderms have have five-part radial symmetry Arthropods Unique Parts Crustaceans Cephalothorax- formed by fusion of the head and thorax
Thorax- lies just behind the head and houses most internal organs
Abdomen- posterior part of the body Carapace- part of exoskeleton that covers the cephalothorax
Mandible- mouthpart adapted for biting and grinding food
Chelipeds- first pair of legs
Swimmerets- flipperlike appendages used for swimming Chelicerates Chelicerae- contain fangs that stab and paralyze prey
Pedipalps- long, modified to grab prey
Spinnerets- organs that contain silk glands (spiders) Echinoderms Unique Parts Endoskeleton- internal skeleton formed of harden plates of calcium carbonate.
Madreporite- a sievelike structure that opens to the outside.
Tube Foot- structure that operates as a suction cup.
Water Vascular System- filled with fluid, carries out many essiential body functions in echinoderms including respiration, circulation, and movement. Food How Arthropods Obtain Their Food Scavengers- feeds on carrion (dead animals) or dead plant material
Hunters- goes out looking for prey to eat
Bloodsuckers- sucks the blood from other animals
Filter Feeders- strain suspended matter and food particles from water
Parasites- gains nutrients by taking it from the host
Detritivores- feeds on decaying organic matter Herbivores
Omnivores What Arthropods Eat Dead plant and animal (carrion) material
Other small creatures (small rodents, reptiles, other arthropods)
Algae and other plant material
Bacteria and other particles in the water
Decaying organic material How Echinoderms Obtain Their Food Arthropods Digestive System Use their tube feet to capture.
Five-part jawlike structures to scrape up algae.
Move like bulldozers along the ocean floor taking in different foods.
Sea stars usually eat mollusks by pushing its stomach through its mouth, pours out enzymes, and digests the mollusk in its own shell. Most land arthropods dispose of nitrogenous wastes using Malpighian tubules.
Malpighian tubules- saclike organs that extract wastes from the blood and then add them to the feces, or digestive wastes, that move through the gut. In most water arthropods, diffusion moves cellular wastes from the arthropod's body into the surrounding water. What Echinoderms Eat Echinoderm Digestive System Solid wastes are released as feces through the anus.
Nitrogen-containing cellular waste are released in the form of ammonia.
passed to the surrounding water through the thin-walled tissues of tube feet and skin gills. Plankton
Sea urchins Respiration Arthropods Most terrestrial (land) arthropods breath through a network of branching tracheal tubes
Air enters and leaves the tubes through spiracles (small openings on the sides of the body)
Other terrestrial arthropods respire using book lungs
Book Lungs- organs that have layers of respitory tissues stacked like a book
Aquatic arthropods respire through featherlike gills Echinoderms In most species the thin-walled tube feet provide the main surface for respiration
In some species, small outgrowths called skin gills also function in gas exchange Circulation Arthropods Open Circulatory System heart pumps blood through arteries that branch and enter tissue
Blood leaves the blood vessels and moves through sinuses, or cavities
Blood collects in a large sinus surrounding the heart
Blood re-enters the heart and repeats the process Echinoderms Circulation of needed materials and waste take place throughout the water vascular system
Oxygen, food, and waste are all carried by the water vascular system Nervous System and Response to Environment Arthropods Nervous System Complex nervous system with a brain (switchboard) and two nerves encircling the esophagus connecting it to the ventral nerve cord Compound eyes
Propriocepters (sense of body postion and movement)
Chemorecepters (chemical responses) Echinoderm Nervous System Most have a nerve ring that surrounds the mouth and radial nerves that connect the ring with the body sections Scattered sensory cells that detect light, gravity, and chemicals releases by potential energy Movement Arthropods They move using well-developed groups of muscles that are coordinated and controlled by the nervous system
These muscles generate force by contracting and then pulling on the exoskeleton Echinoderms Most use tube feet and thin layers of muscle fibers attached to their endoskeleton
It's mobility is determined by the structure of it's endoskeleton Reproduction Arthropods Terrestrial arthropods have internal fertilization
Some species, males have a reproductive organ that places sperm inside females
Other species, males deposit a sperm packet that is picked up by females
Aquatic arthropods can have internal or external fertilization
External fertilization takes place outside of the females body when she releases eggs into the external environment and males shed sperm around the eggs Echinoderms Echinoderms reproduce by external fertilization
Sperm is produced in testes and eggs are produced in ovaries
Both are released into open water where fertilization takes place Metamorphosis Complete Metamorphosis when the eggs hatch they look nothing like their parents.
undergo change from larva, to pupa, then to adult. Incomplete Metamorphosis look very much like adults.
immature forms called nymphs.
molt several times before becoming an adult, Body Temperature and Homeostasis Arthropods Molting When arthropods outgrow their exoskeleton they shed it in a process called molting, in which a larger one takes it's place. They maintain homeostasis by molting their skeleton periodically to keep an exterior that fits their body. Their body temperature depends on the temperature of the environment surrounding them. (cold blooded) Echinoderms Use the environment around the to regulate body temperature. they must stay in warm places in order to maintain homeostasis Arthropods Arthropods make up 80% of all of the world's known species. There are approximately 7,000 species of known echinoderms in the world. Quick Stats