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# Solutions

GCII Chapter 12
by

## Joe Christopher

on 9 January 2018

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#### Transcript of Solutions

Solutions

Solution=Homogeneous Mixture
1. Solvent and Solute
Concentration
Colligative Properties
-Depend on the # (mols) of particles, not on the type
Vapor Pressure
Raoult's Law - P(solution) =
X
(solvent)P(solvent)
Colloids
Small particles are dispersed in a dispersing medium.
Solution equilibrium
Energetics
Ionic compound in water - heat of Hydration
Freezing Point Depression and
Boiling Point Elevation
**gases always mix to give a solution
4. Intermolecular forces
2. Different Types
3.Spontaneous Mixing
More Common
Uniform Composition
Forces between solute and solvent
How?
Thirsty solution
Aqueous
Solubility= Amount
Is oil soluble in water?
Is oil soluble in hexane?
Why the difference?
Like Dissolves Like
No IMF = Spontaneous Homogeneous mixing (gases)
Why?
Lower potential energy? Not Always
Something Else?
Entropy - the measure of
energy randomization

or
energy dispersal
in a system
Saturated vs.
Unsaturated
Supersaturated
Gases
Temperature
Pressure
Sgas =kH*Pgas
What is the solubility of carbon dioxide in soda water if it is bottled under 2.6 atm of pressure at 25 celsius.
Molarity (M)
Molality (
m
)
Mole Fraction (
X
)
Mole %
Parts by mass or volume (%, ppm, ppb)
mol solute/kg solvent
mol solute/total mol solute and solvent
(mol solute/total mol solute and solvent)*100
(g solute/g solution)*factor
(ml solute/ml solution)*factor
mol solute/L solution
1. A solution is prepared by dissolving 50.4 g sucrose (C12H22O11) in 0.332 kg of water. The final volume of the solution is 355 mL. Calculate the concentration in each unit.
molarity, molality, mass %, ppm, mole fraction, mole %
2. What is the molarity of a 10.5% by mass glucose (C6H12O6) solution? The denisty of the solution is 1.03 g/mL
Temperature
-Vapor Pressure
-Boiling Point
-Freezing Point
-Osmotic Pressure
Solvent vs. Solution
Volatile Solute?
P(A) = X(A)P*(A)
P(B) = X(B)P*(B)
Ptotal = P(A) + P(B)
A solution of benzene (C6H6) and toluene (C7H8) is 25% by mass benzene. At 25 degrees C the vapor pressure of pure benzene is 94.2 torr and pure toluene is 28.4 torr.
1. What is the vapor pressure of each solution component in the mixture?
2. What is the total vapor pressure of the solution
Practice!
Calculate the vapor pressure at 25 degrees C of a solution containing 55.3 g ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) and 285.2 g water. The vapor pressure of pure water at 25 degrees C is 23.8 torr.
Practice !
Calculate the freezing point of a solution containing 36.2 g of ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) in 67.5 mL of water. Kf water = 1.86 C/m. (Assume the density =1.00g/mL)

What is the boiling point? Kb water = 0.512 C/m

Practice!
Calculate the molality of a glucose solution (C6H12O6) required to lower the freezing point of water to -8 degrees C.
Osmotic Pressure
Calculate the osmotic pressure (atm) of a solution containing 4.5 g of glucose (C6H12O6) in 50.0 mL of solution at 25 degrees Celsius.
Kelvin
R= 0.08206 L*atm/mol*K
Osmosis- Flow of solvent from lower solute concentration to higher solute concentration
Electrolyte Solutions
i = moles of particles in solution/moles of compound dissolved
If the water pressure at the bottom of Lake Nyos is 25 atm what is the solubility of carbon dioxide at that depth?
Calculate the freezing point of an aqueous 0.10
m
FeCl3 solution. Use a van't Hoff factor of 3.2.
What could happen if you give an IV of pure water?
For vapor pressure we adjust the fraction calculation for Raoult's Law.
Soap
Size = 1nm-1000nm
H-bonds
Ion-dipole
Vitamins - C, K3, A, B5, D3
-4
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