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Transcript of Solutions
Solvent and Solute
-Depend on the # (mols) of particles, not on the type
Raoult's Law - P(solution) =
Small particles are dispersed in a dispersing medium.
Ionic compound in water - heat of Hydration
Freezing Point Depression and
Boiling Point Elevation
**gases always mix to give a solution
Forces between solute and solvent
Is oil soluble in water?
Is oil soluble in hexane?
Is ethanol soluble in water?
Why the difference?
Is ethanol soluble in hexane?
Like Dissolves Like
No IMF = Spontaneous Homogeneous mixing (gases)
Lower potential energy?
Entropy - the measure of
in a system
What is the solubility of carbon dioxide in soda water if it is bottled under 2.6 atm of pressure at 25 celsius.
Mole Fraction (
Parts by mass or volume (%, ppm, ppb)
mol solute/kg solvent
mol solute/total mol solute and solvent
(mol solute/total mol solute and solvent)*100
(g solute/g solution)*factor
(ml solute/ml solution)*factor
mol solute/L solution
1. A solution is prepared by dissolving 50.4 g sucrose (C12H22O11) in 0.332 kg of water. The final volume of the solution is 355 mL. Calculate the concentration in each unit.
molarity, molality, mass %, ppm, mole fraction, mole %
2. What is the molarity of a 10.5% by mass glucose (C6H12O6) solution? The denisty of the solution is 1.03 g/mL
Solvent vs. Solution
P(A) = X(A)P*(A)
P(B) = X(B)P*(B)
Ptotal = P(A) + P(B)
A solution of benzene (C6H6) and toluene (C7H8) is 25% by mass benzene. At 25 degrees C the vapor pressure of pure benzene is 94.2 torr and pure toluene is 28.4 torr.
1. What is the vapor pressure of each solution component in the mixture?
2. What is the total vapor pressure of the solution
Calculate the vapor pressure at 25 degrees C of a solution containing 55.3 g ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) and 285.2 g water. The vapor pressure of pure water at 25 degrees C is 23.8 torr.
Calculate the freezing point of a solution containing 36.2 g of ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) in 67.5 mL of water. Kf water = 1.86 C/m. (Assume the density =1.00g/mL)
What is the boiling point? Kb water = 0.512 C/m
Calculate the molality of a glucose solution (C6H12O6) required to lower the freezing point of water to -8 degrees C.
Calculate the osmotic pressure (atm) of a solution containing 4.5 g of glucose (C6H12O6) in 50.0 mL of solution at 25 degrees Celsius.
R= 0.08206 L*atm/mol*K
Osmosis- Flow of solvent from lower solute concentration to higher solute concentration
i = moles of particles in solution/moles of compound dissolved
If the water pressure atthe bottom of Lake Nyos is 25 atm what is the solubility of carbon dioxide at that depth?
Calculate the freezing point of an aqueous 0.10
FeCl3 solution. Use a van't Hoff factor of 3.2.
What could happen if you give an IV of pure water?
For vapor pressure we adjust the fraction calculation for Raoult's Law.
Size = 1nm-1000nm
Vitamins - C, K3, A, B5, D3