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Digestive System Case Study

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Kayla Ertolahti

on 17 April 2010

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Transcript of Digestive System Case Study

Double click anywhere & add an idea Digestion begins with your mouth. This is the beginning step involving both mechanical and chemical digestion. Your teeth do the mechanical work and shred the food while your salivary glands release saliva to moisten it. This is the chemical role because it involves the use of enzymes. The enzyme Amylase, which is found in your saliva, breaks down the complex starch molecules (carbohydrates) before moving the food to the back of the throat to be swallowed. After you have chewed and moistened your food,
you swallow it. The partially broken down food enters
your esophagus (muscular tube that connects your
mouth to your stomach). The food keeps sliding down
the esophagus because of peristalsis (the
rhythmic, involuntary contraction of smooth muscles
located in the walls of digestive organs).
Hydrochloric acid is present in the stomach-it is
found naturally in gastric acid. Now that the
food has reached the stomach, the enzyme pepsin is
excreted and mixes with the hydrochloric acid and
aids in the chemical breakdown of proteins into
peptides. The mechanical role is played by the
stomach walls when they contract approximately
every twenty seconds, creating a churning action
and breaking the food up even. The food that has passed through the stomach is now a thick liquid
referred to as chyme. The chyme enters into the nearest part of
the small intestine called the duodenum. The small intestine is
the powerhouse of digestion because it is where most of the
digestion takes places and where nutrients are absorbed into the body.

The pancreas, which is connected to the duodenum, neutralizes
chyme by releasing an alkaline fluid that nuetralizes the effects
of stomach acid. Enzymes, such as amylase, lipase, and trypsin,
are manufactured and secreted into the duodenum. Amylase, we already
know, breaks down the starches. Lipase splits the fat into fatty
acids, and trypsin is a protein processor.

Meanwhile, the gallbladder squeezes out bile into the intestine to
mix with the fat and bile acids dissolve the fat. The fat is then
digested by the lipase enzymes from the pancreas and from the
lining of the intestines. Lastly, whatever could not be absorbed,
such as fiber and hard starches, move on
to the larger intestine to be ejected
from the body. Why did Kim tell her brother that he was going to be sick after eating the raw pork? Kim probably knows that pork should be cooked all
the way through because the raw meat may be
infected with bacteria or other pathogens such as
parasites or viruses. This could cause food
poisoning or worse. DISCLOSURE 1: DISCLOSURE 2: According to James' symptoms, he could have many different kinds of illnesses, but the one that closely matches the symptoms he is displaying at this point is trichinosis.
Trichinosis is a disease caused by parasites (specifically roundworms). Once the larvae are ingested, trichinella cysts break open in the intestines and grow into adult roundworms that can harm and damage body tissues. The roundworms would reproduce and journey through James' gut wall and into his bloodstream. Because it takes time for the larvae to grow into adults, there are two seperate phases of symptoms that he will endure. Usually, the first phase happens within one or two days inside of the intestines and causes abdominal discomfort (cramping), diarrhea, and nausea. The second phase begins two to eight weeks after having ingested the parasite(s) and causes muscle aches, itchiness, fever, swelling of the face, weakness, high fever, and many other symptoms.

Not everybody has symptoms of trichinosis if they have it, and sometimes it goes away all by itself. But in some cases, like James', the symptoms start out with the fever, diarrhea, and cramping. If James catches the larvae quick enough, while they are still in the intestines, there is a few different medications that he can take. One is called Albendazole. Albendazole prevents new larvae from reproducing or multiplying inside the body. But, if James' had waited too long and let the larvae start infesting his muscles and tissues, there is no actual treatment and it would be too late. The only thing to do in this case would be to get bed rest and use pain and inflammatory medications. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM CASE STUDY The main organs used during digestion:
Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine What may have caused James to be sick, according to the symptoms? The possible cause for James to be sick is the raw pork
that he ate. My reasoning for this possibility is
simply because a person usually only gets diarrhea from
ingesting food or water that is infected with bacteria,
parasites or viruses. Diarrhea can also sometimes be
caused by some sort of allergic reaction to medications,
but it is never said that James is taking medication for
anything. It can also be caused by being lactose
intolerant, but it is also never said that James has
consumed any dairy products.

Cramps are caused by a variety of things such as diarrhea,
lactose intolerance, excessive gas, constipation, and the
stomach flu. Because James does have diarrhea, his cramping
may just be caused by that, but I doubt it in this case.
Trichinosis Sources: http://www.classzone.com/cz/books/bio_07/secured/resources/applications/ebook/index.jsp (Online Textbook)

http://nutrition.suite101.com/article.cfm/6_steps_of_digestion

http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/yrdd/

http://images.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://www.diseasencure.com/digestive-system.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.diseasencure.com/digestive%2520sys.html&usg=__pfsZwyzih6xdIgkOpjITUA_Cb_0=&h=320&w=400&sz=30&hl=en&start=66&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=Ski4WKunHyZHkM:&tbnh=99&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dorgans%2Bof%2Bthe%2Bdigestive%2Bsystem%26start%3D63%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26gbv%3D2%26ndsp%3D21%26tbs%3Disch:1
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