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Ancient River Valley Civilizations

Made By Kyndhal Stewart and Shreeti Sidgel
by

Kyndhal Stewart

on 8 August 2013

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Transcript of Ancient River Valley Civilizations

EGYPT
photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
A deeper look at Egypt,China,Mesopotamia
and the Indus Valley

Ancient River Valley Civilizations
EGYPT
Geography
Government
A major part of the egyptian government,
was the pharaoh's vizier ( chief minister).
It was the job of the vizier to supervise
the business of government, such as taxes, farming and irrigation..
In the old kingdom, power was passed form one dynasty, ruling family, to another. The Pharaoh was the ultimate
Egyptian ruler. Egyptians thought
of the pharaoh as a god. He had absolute power,
owning, and ruling all of Egypt.
Art
The Egyptians made statues & created paintings and carvings that could be found as temple and/or tomb decorations. For thousands of years, the pharaohs and gods were depicted much larger in paintings and people because of their superior status. Egyptian literature contained stories of war, poems of love and hymns and prayers to the gods.
The Egyptians were polytheistic who believed their pharaoh was the descendent from the sun god, Amon-Re. They widely recognized and respected Osiris, the god of the underworld and the Nile and his wife, Isis. The Egyptians also believed in an afterlife that was much more rewarding than life.
Religion
Architecture
Egyptian
Egyptians built pyramid shaped tombs for pharaohs and nobleman. They buildings were made of pure limestone bricks that weight more than 2 tons. The Egyptians also built dikes, reservoirs and irrigation ditches near the Nile River to control the rising waters.
The Egyptians had very good knowledge in medicine, astronomy and math. Doctors in medicine would be involved in surgical operations and observed, diagnosed, and cured illnesses. All observations would be noted on papyrus paper. Astronomers also mapped constellations and developed the basis of our modern-day calendar
Writing Systems
Ancient Egyptians used
heiroglyphics , picture writing,
to record important events. They
were carved on stone and kept for
thousands of years. Ideograms ,
pictures that represent action,
were later added. Scribes later invetned demotic a simple writing for every day.
Economics
A large part of the Egyptian economy
was trading and farming. Merchants
traveled the NIle and traded gold,papyrus
and crops with Africa , the Middle East, and the Mediterranean.Farmers grew crops which added to the food surplus and helped make many things.
CHINA
China has a range of climates and climate zones. From high mountains (Himalayas and Tien Shan) in the west, dense jungles in the southeast, the pacific in the east, and the forbidding Gobi desert in the north.
Government
The ancient Chinese government was passed down through dynasties, ruling families, and was ultimately ruled by the emperor/king and their group of lords, princes, and priests.
ART
Shang dynasty: The oldest forms of Chinese writing were found on animal bones and turtle shells. As generations passed, their writing became more and more complex until they contained 10,000 characters.
Zhou Dynasty: 1000 years B.C, the Chinese figured how to craft silk threads from silkworm cocoons. Silk became widely popular in trade and were bought from as far as the Middle East.
Religion
-Like the other ancient religions, the Chinese were polytheistic. They worshiped various gods who represented different forms of nature. They also believed that gods would not answer the prayers of just anyone; only the people who were high noblemen or descendents of the emperor could get the attention from the gods. The Chinese also believed in the idea of ‘yin and yang’, where the universe is in a balance between the two. Yin = Earth, darkness, female. Yang= Heaven, light, male.
ARCHITECTURE
Just like the other river valley civilizations, the Chinese had to control the Huang He and Yangzi River using irrigation systems. Tombs and Palaces were available to emperors and noblemen, while the rest of China, who belonged in the lower classes, had very poor forms of architecture that consisted of thatch-roofed pit houses.
China has been credited for developing the decimal system. Astronomers also studied and mapped out the movement of planets.
Some of the oldest Chinese writing was found on oracle bones. Priests wrote questions to gods or spirits on the bones, and heated the bone to find the answer. 4,000 years ago characters were invented. There are tens of thousands of characters which have now been simplified. With brush and ink, scholars have invented calligraphy, an elegant form of writing.
Writing Styles
Economics
During the Zhou dynasty, the economy of China grew. Iron specialists replaced stone workers; peasants grew new crops, and became more efficient. Commerce also expanded. The Chinese also began using copper coins with holes in the middle. A good economy grew to a population increase.
Indus Valley
Mesopotamia
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AT the top of the hieracrchy was a ruling family and officials.In each city-state, the ruler was responsible for maintaning city walls, irrigation systems, armies and policing. Scribes kept records and collected taxes.
Writing Systems
Cuneiform writing was used in these times.
This comes from the Latin word "cuneus"
for wedge.It involved a reed pen to make wedge- shaped marks on clay tablets. Later, priests developed symbols to represent more complicated thoughts.
Economics
To improve trade, a common set ofweights and measures were set up. People still bartered and traded in a barter economy, but most people bought from merchants to form a money economy.
Cuneiform, the oldest known form of writing of the Sumerians, were first used for recording harvest but was later used for myths, prayers, politics and business contracts
arts
religion
The people were polytheistic and believed that gods controlled every aspect of nature. They also built ziggurats, or temples, dedicated to their patron god/goddess. Sumerians believed in a different type of underworld than the Egyptians: While the Egyptians viewed the underworld as better than life, the Sumerians described as it as “place where they live on dust” (The Epic of Gilgamesh)
Like the Egyptians, the Sumerians controlled the Tigris and Euphrates rivers by building dikes and irrigation systems to hold back the water. Huge temples called “ziggurats” were also built for the patron god/goddess of each Sumerian city-state. Because the Sumerians lacked vital building materials, they used clay bricks to create buildings throughout Sumer.
architecture
Education in Sumeria was very strict and students had the opportunity to learn about religion, medicine, math, geography, etc. The Sumerians invented the wheel and developed algebra and geometry. They also measured time in 60 minutes, just as we do today.
Technology
The dark, rich soil and warm climate of Mesopotamia give it the name "The Fertile Crescent".The yearly flooding of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers wash away top soil and villages.
G
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r
a
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y
AT the top of the hierarchy was a ruling family and officials.In each city-state, the ruler was responsible for maintaining city walls, irrigation systems, armies and policing. Scribes kept records and collected taxes.
Government
Cuneiform, the oldest known form of writing of the Sumerians, was first used for recording harvest but was later used for myths, prayers, politics and business contracts
Art
The people were polytheistic and believed that gods controlled every aspect of nature. They also built ziggurats, or temples, dedicated to their patron god/goddess. Sumerians believed in a different type of underworld than the Egyptians: While the Egyptians viewed the underworld as better than life, the Sumerians described as it as “place where they live on dust” (The Epic of Gilgamesh)
Religion
Like the Egyptians, the Sumerians controlled the Tigris and Euphrates rivers by building dikes and irrigation systems to hold back the water. Huge temples called “ziggurats” were also built for the patron god/goddess of each Sumerian city-state. Because the Sumerians lacked vital building materials, they used clay bricks to create buildings throughout Sumer.
Architecture
Education in Sumeria was very strict and students had the opportunity to learn about religion, medicine, math, geography, etc. The Sumerians invented the wheel and developed algebra and geometry. They also measured time in 60 minutes, just as we do today.
Technology
Cuneiform writing was used in these times.
This comes from the Latin word "cuneus"
for wedge.It involved a reed pen to make wedge- shaped marks on clay tablets. Later, priests developed symbols to represent more complicated thoughts.
Writing Systems
To improve trade, a common set of weights and measures were set up. People still bartered and traded in a barter economy, but most people bought from merchants to form a money economy.
Economics
Created by Kyndhal Stewart and Shreeti Sidgel
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