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Transcript of Behavioralism
Classical Conditioning Criticisms of Behaviorism Behaviorism
A Theory of human Development...describes the law and processes by which behaviors is learned (Berger, 2011,p.40).
Also known as the theory of learning,
based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning (Berger,p.40). Among the strengths is the solid foundation on empirical research, its strength lies in the development of useful behavioral change procedures... which use baseline date and objective criteria to determine their effectiveness ( Craighead & Nemeroff, p. 873). Strengths of Behaviorism Major Thinkers in Behaviorism Drive Theory Conditioned Reflex Behavior Modification Operant Conditioning Connectionism
Purposive Behaviorism The Law of Effect One of the assumptions many behaviorists hold is that free will is an illusion. As a result, behaviorism dictates that all behavior is determined by a combination of genetic factors and the environment, either through classical or operant conditioning.
Its main instigators were Ivan Pavlov, who investigated classical conditioning, John B. Watson who coined the term "behaviorism," and sought to restrict psychology to experimental methods, and B.F. Skinner who sought to give grounding to behaviorism, conducting research on operant conditioning. According to Berger's (2011) "A previously neutral stimulus is paired with the naturally occurring stimulus" (p.40) Classical Condition Demenstrations Classical Conditioning Human Conditioning A previously neutral stimulus is paired with the naturally occurring stimulus.
Eventually, the previously neutral stimulus comes to evoke the response without the presence of the naturally occurring stimulus. The two elements are then known as the conditioned stimulus and the conditioned response. Sound Pain Reaction A Classic Conditioning My mother who died when I was 12 years old, would where only Charlie perfume.To this day, anytime I smell Charlie It makes me feel happy and I smile. Lifespan Development Developmental Theory Classical Conditioning Cassandra Mazyck By Nicotine The term behaviorism pertains to the school of psychology founded by John B. Watson... in opposition to the psychoanalytic notion of the unconscious (Berger, 2011, p.39)
Behaviorism was established with the publication of Watson's classic paper Psychology as the behaviorist Views It (Watson,1913) Conditioned Response As a counselor, I could also use classical conditioning in this way;
A client wants to quit smoking: the client is allowed to smoke but must take the puff on the cigarette every five or six seconds. As nicotine is a poison, such rapid smoking produces nausea and dizziness, both unpleasant responses. I would be manipulating Conditioned Response (CR) this technique would retrain behavior natural occurring stimulus with a response. History THERE ARE TWO MAJOR TYPES OF CONDITIONING CLASSICAL & OPERANT CONDITIONING Studies on classical conditioning and Nicotine Smoking One study from Littel and Franken (2012) sugesst classical conditioning play an important role in the development, maintenance, and relapse of tobacco smoking.
According to Baker, Piper, McCarthy, Majeskie, and Fiore, (2004)
Several studies have shown that initially neutral stimuli that are directly paired with smoking are able to elicit conditioned responses... Classical conditioning theory predicts that with repeated drug use, drug-related stimuli becomes associated with the drug intake, consequently with motivational significance and evokes conditioned drug responses reactivity occurs seeking behaviors. Nicotine addiction & Nocotine Replacement Theory Patches, Gum, lozenges, Inhalers, and Sprays. Robinson and Berridge (1993) stated, Once the brain is saturated with Nicotine (continued smoking) causing the receptors to become de-sensitized... The brain grow or activate millions of extra receptors, a process known as up-regulations. Every two hours the amount of Nicotine remaining in the blood streem declined by half-life... resulting in more (cravings). Nicotine using classical conditioning concepts... nicotine replacement therapy motivates conditional reaction. The brain & The body As discussed in class while exploring the first two years -Bio social Development Chapter 5 "The brain's dopamine pathways serve as a built-in-teacher, it uses a desire, yearning or wanting sensation to get our attention" (Preston, 2012, professional Counseling ) According to Carter, Tiffany (1999) numerous studies reports smokers increased craving and physiological arousal when exposed to cigarette stimuli. These responses are attributed to learning processes (Classical Conditioning) and are associated with motivational factors that maintain nicotine dependence... (Tiffany, 1990). Less is known about the degree to which these responses are maintained or diminished during quitting. The pioneers of behaviorism and classical conditioning have fostered the development and current state of classical conditioning theory and its contribution to growth and development, medical and mental health treatments, as well as, medications and therapies. While behaviorism is not as dominant today as it was during the middle of the 20th-century, it still remains an influential force in psychology. Outside of psychology, animal trainers, parents, teachers and many others make use of basic behavioral principles to help teach new behaviors and discourage unwanted ones. Final Thoughts References American Psychological Association [APA],(2012) Sheehy, N. (2004). Fifty Key Thinkers in Psychology
Baker, T., Piper, M., McCarthy, D., Majeskie, M. & Fiore, M. (2004). Addiction motivation
reformulated: an affective processing model of negative reinforcement. Psychol Rev
Berger, K. S. (2011). The developing person through the life span . (11 ed.). New York, NY: Worth.
Carter, B. , & Tiffany, S. (1999). Meta-analysis of cue-reactivity in addiction research. Addiction,
Jordan, K. (2011). Like Pavlov's dog, but with a baby instead. Uploaded on October 21, 2012
Littel, M., & Franken, I. (2012). Electrophysiological correlates of associative learning in smokers: a
higher-order conditioning experiment. BMC Neuroscience, 13(1), 1-13. doi:10.1186/1471-
Preston, S.E.(2012, October) The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e Paper presented
in class on South University Campus, Virginia Beach, VA
Robinson, T. , & Berridge, K. (1993). The neural basis of drug craving: an incentive-sensitization
theory of addiction.. Brain Res Brain Res Rev, 247(91), 3.
Singh , A. (1991). The comprehensive history of psychology . (1 ed., p. 229-230). Delhi: Motilal
Banarsidass Publishers PVT. LTD.
Tiffany, S. (1990). A cognitive model of drug urges and drug-use behavior: role of automatic &
nonautomatic processes. Psychol Rev, 2(147-68), 97.
Watson, J. B. (1913). Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it. Psychological Review, 20, 158-177. (APA, 2012) (Jordan, 2011) Psychologist has criticized both primary system and secondary system of Watsonian behaviorism. William McDougall was one of the major critics of Watson system. McDougall pointed out that denial of consciousness and mind as well as, total rejection of method of introspection eliminated a great deal of valuable and legitimate data in psychology… Thus, Watson was charged with narrowing the scope of psychology and limiting it to the study of overt behavior (Singh, 1991, p. 229). R.S. Woodworth (who always showed a disliking for Watson from beginning) also criticized Watson’s substitution of method of verbal report for method of introspection. He rightly concluded, “We may conclude that verbal report is not a behavioristic method and that Watson’s use of it is practically a confession of defeat for methodological behaviorism (Singh, 1991, p. 230). The learning and conditioning models strengths and weaknesses. Classical Conditioning