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Renaissance+Protestant Reformation

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Mark Twain Carroll

on 1 March 2017

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Transcript of Renaissance+Protestant Reformation

14th-17th Century
-The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned the period roughly from the 14th to the 17th century,
-Began in_________________ during the Late Middle Ages and later spread to the rest of Europe
-A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines (art, science, philosophy, politics, religion) are approached
Fall of Constantinople
-Constantinople fell in May, 1453
-Conquered by__________________
-Opened Europe to Muslim invasion
-Marked the end of the Middle Ages
-Hundreds of Greek/non-Greek intellectuals fled the city to Italy
Why the Renaissance happened
-3 factors led to the Renaissance happening when and where it did



4 Effects of the Renaissance
-the Renaissance affected 4 parts of culture




-Humanism is the idea the places emphasis on the value of people and the individual
-Led to the creation of the "humanities" subjects
-Famous humanists include Niccolo Machiavelli+Thomas More
-Wrote about how people can be better citizens, maximize their education, and enter the afterlife in a perfect mental state
-Renaissance art was known for its realism and appreciation of the human form
-Famous artists include: Michelangelo, Raphael, and Donatello
-a new way of thinking about the relationship between man and God
-people began to believe that their relationship with God was more personal with less need of a clergy
-corruption grew in the Church as religious leaders tried to hold onto their power
-Pope Alexander VI was the worst
-Church leaders were often charged with nepotism, simony, and fathering children
-many new scientific ideas formed during the Renaissance
-Nicholas Copernicus proposed the heliocentric theory
-Leonardo da Vinci studied anatomy, nature, and aerodynamics
-Columbus "discovered" the New World
-Print was invented allowing thousadns of more books/document to be circulated
-Galileo Galilei was renowned for his contributions to astronomy and physics
-Galileo was also placed under house arrest by the Church for his ideas
Leonardo da Vinci
-born in Italy in 1452
-major contributor in science and art
-famous paintings include the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper
-was an adamant studier of human and animal anatomy
-created many inventions such as hydraulic pumps and finned mortar shells
-made some early designs of submarines, gliders, and helicopters
Corruption in the Renaissance
-the Renaissance would eventually spread to all corners of Europe
-despite all the positives, it was a not a "Golden Age"
-politics and religion were severely corrupted by the Renaissance
-persecutions of political/religious reasons actually increased
-religious corruption would lead to splits in the Church across Europe
-there were many problems in the Church as clergy sought to hold onto+exploit their power
-religious leaders still had too much political power
-2 most common crimes were simony+nepotism



-The Borgia Popes were also known for their crimes
Borgia Popes
-the Borgias were a powerful family out of Spain
-3 family members would serve as pope during the Renaissance Era
-most notorious was Rodrigo Borgia (Pope Alexander VI)
-Rodrigo stole money from the Church, was accused of bribery+assassinations of rivals, had several mistresses+fathered children, and supported slavery
-many clergymen throughout Europe opposed the corrupt+immoral practices of the Catholic Church
-most famous of these was the German monk Martin Luther
-fought against corruption in the Church, but felt he was getting nowhere
-October 31, 1517 he nailed his "95 Theses" to the door of the Wittenburg Church
-the 95 Theses argue the Catholic Church teachings on baptism and forgiveness of sins
-Luther was excommunicated soon after
Early Protestants
-those who supported Martin Luther were known as Lutherans
-believed 2 things: Salvation+Jesus could only be found by faith AND that the Papacy was work of the Antichrist
-Lutherans made use of the printing press to spread their word across Europe
-would be two other major Protestant movements besides Martin Luther


John Calvin
-formed Calvinism
-broke from the Catholic Church but also did not get along with Lutherans
-differed on their beliefs regarding Communion, worship of idols, and absolution of sins
-King Henry VIII wanted a divorce from his wife, the Spanish Catherine of Aragon b/c she only had only given him one daughter
-Pope refused, so Henry VIII decided to break away and form his own religion
-Called___________________ and considered it the middle ground between Catholics and Lutherans/Calvinists
-Cracked down hard on the British Isles to strenghten his religion
-Catholics were persecuted, especially in Ireland
-Executed his best friend, Thomas More, because More opposed Henry VIII's decision
-the Church tried to clean up their act as thousands of people changed their religion
-clergy who were known to be guilt of simony or fathering children were excommunicated
-Pope made promises to reassure the people
-Simony+nepotism were made crimes by the church
-was moderately successful and the Catholic Church gained back many followers
Religious Wars in Europe
-from 1524 to 1648 Europe suffered from a series of religious conflicts

-historians can point out 6 major wars that occurred due to religious differences between combatants

-the largest and most significant of these religious wars was the __________________________
30 Years War 1618-1648
-this was the largest+bloodiest of the religious wars
-was fought between the Catholic and Protestant countries of Europe over control of the Holy Roman Empire (modern day Germany)
-the Holy Roman Empire was made up of dozens of independent kingdoms, some Catholic and some Protestant
-the Catholic+Protestant members of the HRE wanted their religion to be the official national religion
-major European countries allied themselves with the small kingdoms in the HRE based on their religion
-8,000,000 soldiers and civilians would die

The Conflict
-civilians were vulnerable targets
-40% of the HRE's population was killed
-one of the first European conflicts to involve the use of guns
-many sides were forced to use mercenaries after many of their soldiers were killed
-mercenaries were undisciplined and switched sides constantly
-war was a stalemate for about 20 years

Peace of Westphalia
-Protestant forces gained the upper hand when France (Catholic) sided with them for political reasons
-Conflict finally ended in 1648
-The war resulted in 4 things




-in 1440, a goldsmith from Mainz (HRE), named__________________invented the printing press

-the press dramatically increased the output of books in Europe...one printing press could produce 3,600 pages per day

-the first book to be mass produced was___________________

-the printing press spread to over 200 cities in 12 European countries

-by 1500, Europeans had printed over 20,000,000 books
-the ability to mass produce books greatly decreased their price

-books were no longer a luxury item and were available to the masses

-encouraged education among the European people and literacy rates rose sharply

-Europe was beginning to see a return of an educated population
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