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Grammar - Chapter 8: Pronouns

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Brian Michael

on 27 February 2014

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Transcript of Grammar - Chapter 8: Pronouns

I was left to my own devices
Many days fell away with nothing to show

And the walls kept tumbling down
In the city that we love
Great clouds roll over the hills
Bringing darkness from above

But if you close your eyes,
Does it almost feel like
Nothing changed at all?
And if you close your eyes,
Does it almost feel like
You've been here before?
How am I gonna be an optimist about this?
How am I gonna be an optimist about this?

We were caught up and lost in all of our vices
In your pose as the dust settles around us

And the walls kept tumbling down
In the city that we love
Great clouds roll over the hills
Bringing darkness from above


Nominative Case:
When the pronoun functions as a subject or predicate nominative/predicate pronoun.
Grammar
Chapter 8: Pronouns

Lesson 2: The Nominative & Objective Cases
Idea/Teaching Point:
Personal Pronouns take different forms depending on how they are used in sentences.

When a nominative pronoun is used as a predicate nominative, it's called a
predicate pronoun.

A
Predicate Pronoun
immediately follows a linking verb and identifies the subject of the sentence.
May be used as part of a compound subject
Ex: Jenny and
he
went to the concert.
Choosing the Correct Case...
Ex: Arlo and (I, me) sang a song.
Try each part separately...
Arlo sang a song.

I sang a song. (correct)

Me sang a song. (incorrect)
Replace the correct pronoun in the original sentence...
Arlo and I sang a song.
Ex: It was they who stood up and cheered.
Subject
Linking Verb
Predicate Pronoun
Objective Case:
When the pronoun functions as a direct object, an indirect object, or an object of the preposition.
May be used as part of a compound subject
Ex: Rena called
her
. (Direct Object)

Rena
lent me
the CD. (Indirect Object)

Rena gave the poster
to us
. (OOP)
To refresh your memory...
Direct Object:
names the receiver of the action. (answers what or whom)

Indirect Object:
tells to what, to whom, or for whom an action is being done.

Object of the Preposition:
Word(s) that follow the preposition(-al phrase).
An objective pronoun can also be used as part of a compound subject.
Ex: We heard
Sam and her
in concert. (Direct Object)

Charlie wrote
Sonya and me
a song. (Indirect Object)

Play your banjo for
the class and us
. (OOP)
Choosing the Correct Case...
Ex: Yuki played a song for Holly and (he, him).
Try each part separately...
Yuki played a song for Holly.

Yuki played a song for
he. (incorrect)

Yuki played a song for
him. (correct)
Replace the correct pronoun in the original sentence...
Yuki played a song for Holly and
him
.
Why does this matter?!
Too often, too many people get tripped on such a simple mistake.
Many often get the use of "I" and "me" confused.
Correcting these little mistakes and understanding this more will help you when you get to the ACT so you don't lose easy points!
Daily Objective: Understand how Pronouns are used & function in the Nominative & Objective Cases.
Homework:
Grammar Worksheet
(finish for tomorrow!)
Possessive:
Pronoun(s) that show ownership or relationships among each other.
Lesson 3: The Possessive Case
2.) As an adjective to modify a noun or gerund. The pronoun comes before the word it modifies.
Possessive Pronouns can be used in two ways:
Ex: Where are
the earplugs
?


Mine
are upstairs.
Homonyms: Contractions vs. Possessives
Ex: You're (you are) There's (there is) it's (it is)
Your (sing./plural) theirs its

They're (they are) You'r who's (who is)
their your (singular) whose

Remember that Contractions and Possessives may sound alike (hence, called homonyms), but they have different spellings and meanings...
Why does this matter?!
Too often, too many people get tripped on such simple mistakes.
People commonly get confused between using possessives and using conjunctions (ex: Your vs. You're)
ACT-style questions!
Daily Objective: Understand how Pronouns are used & function in the Possessive Case.
Homework:
Grammar Worksheet
(finish for tomorrow!)
Starter:
- Go over HW
- Review Assignment/Warm-Up (handout)
Let's Practice!

- Pg. 181: Practice & Apply
1.) In place of a noun. The pronoun can function as a subject or an object.
Subject
Direct Object
Ex: Families often move to new houses.

Mine
moved last weekend. - Didn't
the movers move
yours
recently?
Ex: Jeb is playing
his
bongo drums.



Our
complaining doesn't help.
Noun
Gerund
Wednesday, February 19th, 2014
Grammar: Chapter 8 - Pronouns (pg. 177)
(YAY! WE LOVE GRAMMAR!)

Grammar Diagnostic/Pre-Test (pg. 177)

Lesson 2: Nominative & Objective Cases

From Yesterday...
Today!
To Check/Determine the correct case...
Ex: As a young teenager, John Lennon said to his aunt, "You throw
(my, mine) poetry out and you'll regret it when I'm famous."
Helpful Hint: Sometimes you can go back in the sentence and take out irrelevant words/phrases. Look at the specific area of concern.
As a young teenager, John Lennon said to his aunt, "You throw
(my, mine) poetry out and you'll regret it when I'm famous."
ACT Prep!
Go into the App/Play store and find/download the "ACT Student App" from ACT. (It's free!!)

Go to www.actstudent.org.
Select that you're a student.
Click 'Test Prep' at the top.

Every day, ACT offers a free practice 'Question of the Day'. Additionally, online you can navigate through and see sample test questions for each section and practice yourself. ACT will tell you the correct answers with DETAILED explanations!
Thursday, February 20th, 2014
Warm-Up/Starter: Paragraph Corrections (7 errors; explain what rule it follows)

Go over Homework assignment from last night & turn-in.

Brief intro. about me

Lesson 3: Possessive Case
About Mr. Michael...
Graduated from Henry Ford II in Sterling Heights
Currently at OU.
Majoring in English w/minor in History for Secondary Education
Graduating in May
Education:
Random Facts:
Left-handed
High 'Flappy Bird Score': 29
Currently Reading: "Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close"
I like Quotes!
Hobbies/Interests:
We've been watching the Olympics daily
Probably the only one who still watches American Idol
I love my iPhone; we all have iPhones, yet my laptop is an HP
I enjoy sports
I love striking up new conversations & getting to know people
Current Events/News
Favorites:
Food:
Grandma's Homemade Spaghetti or Pizza
Color:
Blue; maybe Green
Sport:
Basketball
TV Show:
Way too many on the DVR
Song:
I have a really random assortment
Movie:
Harry Potter movies; 'Wolf of Wall Street'; '21 Jump Street'
Book:
Harry Potter, The Great Gatsby
Actress:
Jennifer Lawrence
Stores/Locales:
Target, Starbucks, Barnes & Noble
YouTube Video:
'Daiy's Lullaby"



#wcw
Who & Whom in Questions:
Lesson 4: Using Who and Whom
Why does this matter?!
Too often, too many people get tripped on such simple mistakes.
People commonly get confused between using possessives and using conjunctions (ex: Your vs. You're)
ACT-style questions!
Daily Objective: Understand how & when too use 'Who' and 'Whom' as pronouns in sentences.
Homework:
Grammar Worksheet
(finish for Monday)

Song Lyrics (appropriate)
Starter:
- Go over HW
- Review Assignment/Warm-Up (handout)
Who
Ex:
Who

wrote the song "This Land is Your Land"?


The writer was
who?
OOP
My mom, sister & I
Our Dog - Scooter
He's a 'Peke-a-Poo'
Cousins - Braden (5) & Jordan (8)
Family:
When you're trying to decide whether to use "who" or "whom," ask yourself if the answer to the question would be "he" or "him."
Who and Whom can be used to ask questions & to introduce subordinate clauses.
Who = the nominative form
Used as a subject or a predicate pronoun
Whom
Whom = the objective form
Used as a direct/indirect object, or OOP
Subject
Predicate Pronoun
Ex:
Whom

did you ask?


From
whom
did you get the information?
Direct Object
Let's Practice!

- Pg. 187: Practice & Apply
Choosing Who vs. Whom in a Question
Ex:
(Who, Whom)
are you speaking to?
Rewrite the question as a statement.
You are speaking to
(who, whom)
.
Looking at the chart, the correct form is whom. Replace that in your original sentence.
Whom
are you speaking to?
Determine whether the pronoun is used as a subject, object, predicate pronoun, or OOP.
What is the pronoun in this form? - OOP
Who & Whom in Subordinate Clauses:
Who
Ex: Pete Seeger is a singer
who
cares about the
environment.
Used as a when pronoun functions as the subject of a subordinate clause
Whom
Used when pronoun functions as a direct/indirect object, or OOP.
Subject
Choosing Who vs. Whom in a Sub. Clause
Ex: Pete Seeger is a singer
(who, whom)
I admire.
Identify the subordinate clause in the sentence.
(who, whom)
I admire.
Replace the correct form in the original sentence.
I admire
(who, whom)
.
Determine how pronoun is used in the sentence. - Subject or Object?
* You may have to rearrange the sentence to do this!
Subordinate Clause:
cannot stand on its own
as a complete thought
Subordinate Clause
Ex: Bob Dylan is one singer
whom
Pete Seeger
influenced.
Subject
Subordinate Clause
Direct Object
Here, pronoun is functioning as a Direct Object.
Pete Seeger is a singer
whom
I admire.
Hint/Tip:
In some cases, to figure out if it is 'who' vs. 'whom',
try replacing those with the pronouns 'he' and 'him'.
Ex:
(Who, Whom)
do you love?
Rewrite:
Do you love
(who, whom)
? I love
(who, whom)
.
Do you love
(he, him)
? I love
(he, him)
.
Do you love
he?

Do you love
him?
Answer:
Do you love
him?



Whom
do you love?
Who
= 'He'
Whom
= 'Him'
Ex:
(Who, Whom)
is known as 'America's singing fork'?


Who/He
is known as 'America's singing fork'?


Whom/Him
is known as 'America's singing fork'?

Answer:
Who
is known as 'America's singing fork'?
Tonight's Homework:
Go through & print out lyrics to one of your favorite songs - school-appropriate.

I will check this in tomorrow for points!
But if you close your eyes,
Does it almost feel like
Nothing changed at all?
And if you close your eyes,
Does it almost feel like
You've been here before?
How am I gonna be an optimist about this?
How am I gonna be an optimist about this?

Oh where do we begin?
The rubble or our sins?
Oh where do we begin?
The rubble or our sins?

And the walls kept tumbling down
In the city that we love
Great clouds roll over the hills
Bringing darkness from above

But if you close your eyes,
Does it almost feel like
Nothing changed at all?
And if you close your eyes,
Does it almost feel like
You've been here before?
How am I gonna be an optimist about this?
How am I gonna be an optimist about this?
But if you close your eyes,
Does it almost feel like
Nothing changed at all?
2.) Pete Seeger is a musician
(who, whom)
many regard as America's greatest folksinger.

3.) Seeger is a musician for
(who, whom)
music has many purposes: to entertain, to bring people together, and to spread ideas.

7.) Woody Guthrie and Leadbelly are two other great musicians
(who, whom)
Seeger admired.

10.)
(Who, Whom)
will he entertain next?

Lesson 5: Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
Daily Objective: Understand what an antecedent is & determine ways to make sure pronouns agree/match up with their antecedents.
Antecedent:
the word that a pronoun replaces or refers to
Remember that pronouns & antecedents must agree/match up!
Agreement in Number:
Singular Antecedent takes a Singular Pronoun
Plural Antecedents take Plural Pronouns
Tips:
Collective Nouns may be either a singular or plural pronoun.
Because of this, you'll need to look at the context of the sentence.

Singular
pronoun

if the collective noun is
acting as/referring to a single unit.




Plural
pronoun
if referring to a collective noun whose parts act individually.




Plural
pronoun is
used to refer to noun/pronouns joined by 'and'.




A pronoun that refers to nouns/pronouns joined by 'or' or 'nor' should agree with noun/pronoun nearest to it.
Ex: The
orchestra
will give
its
final performance tonight.
Ex: The
orchestra
have tuned up
their
instruments.
Ex:
Maria and Denise
played
their
trumpets together.
Ex: Neither
the conductor nor the musicians
have taken
their
places on stage.
Agreement in Gender:
Gender of pronoun must be the same as its antecedent.
Use the phrase 'his or her'
when antecedent of a singular pronoun
could be either masculine or feminine.
Ex:
Each musician
played
his or her
solo.



All
the musician
s
played
their
solos.
Agreement in Person:
Person of a pronoun must match person of its antecedent.




Pronouns
'one', 'everyone', and 'everybody' are third-person and singular.
- They are referred to by 'he', 'him', 'his', 'she', 'her,' and 'hers'.
Ex:
All students
should bring
their
favorite CD to class.
Ex:
Everyone
has
his or her
favorite recordings.
Homework:
Song Lyrics (appropriate)

Grammar Worksheet?
Let's Practice!

- Page 190
Practice & Apply
Change Him back to Whom & Replace back
in original sentence.
Get out your song lyrics you printed out!

Highlight any/all pronouns you see

Label what the different pronouns are showing
(ownership/possession? subjects? objects?)

Find one line that shows pronoun agreement. Label it.

In a short response,
how do pronouns help convey the meaning of the song & make for a better song, in general?

How might the song be different without pronouns?
The people who stocked the tomb left both useful and beautiful things to be used in the afterlife by the king
(who, whom)
they respected and admired.

King Tut was a young king
(who, whom)
ascended the throne when he was only nine years old.

He was the one
(who, whom)
reported that he caught the glint of gold.

By
(who, whom)
was King Tut remembered after centuries?
I was left to my own devices
Many days fell away with nothing to show

And the walls kept tumbling down
In the city that we love
Great clouds roll over the hills
Bringing darkness from above

But if you close your eyes,
Does it almost feel like
Nothing changed at all?
And if you close your eyes,
Does it almost feel like
You've been here before?
How am I gonna be an optimist about this?
How am I gonna be an optimist about this?

We were caught up and lost in all of our vices
In your pose as the dust settles around us

And the walls kept tumbling down
In the city that we love
Great clouds roll over the hills
Bringing darkness from above


But if you close your eyes,
Does it almost feel like
Nothing changed at all?
And if you close your eyes,
Does it almost feel like
You've been here before?
How am I gonna be an optimist about this?
How am I gonna be an optimist about this?

Oh where do we begin?
The rubble or our sins?
Oh where do we begin?
The rubble or our sins?

And the walls kept tumbling down
In the city that we love
Great clouds roll over the hills
Bringing darkness from above

But if you close your eyes,
Does it almost feel like
Nothing changed at all?
And if you close your eyes,
Does it almost feel like
You've been here before?
How am I gonna be an optimist about this?
How am I gonna be an optimist about this?
But if you close your eyes,
Does it almost feel like
Nothing changed at all?
I was left to my own devices
Many days fell away with nothing to show

And the walls kept tumbling down
In the city that we love
Great clouds roll over the hills
Bringing darkness from above

But if you close your eyes,
Does it almost feel like
Nothing changed at all?
And if you close your eyes,
Does it almost feel like
You've been here before?
How am I gonna be an optimist about this?
How am I gonna be an optimist about this?

We were caught up and lost in all of our vices
In your pose as the dust settles around us

And the walls kept tumbling down
In the city that we love
Great clouds roll over the hills
Bringing darkness from above


But if you close your eyes,
Does it almost feel like
Nothing changed at all?
And if you close your eyes,
Does it almost feel like
You've been here before?
How am I gonna be an optimist about this?
How am I gonna be an optimist about this?

Oh where do we begin?
The rubble or our sins?
Oh where do we begin?
The rubble or our sins?

And the walls kept tumbling down
In the city that we love
Great clouds roll over the hills
Bringing darkness from above

But if you close your eyes,
Does it almost feel like
Nothing changed at all?
And if you close your eyes,
Does it almost feel like
You've been here before?
How am I gonna be an optimist about this?
How am I gonna be an optimist about this?
But if you close your eyes,
Does it almost feel like
Nothing changed at all?
I = Subject! the lead singer? an individual? Myself (Brian)?
my = refers back to whoever " I " is
we = society? a group of friends?
you = who is speaker singing to?
it = what is it? a feeling?




this = showing ownership;
what is 'this'?
an optimist about what?!
maybe it's the feelings about all
this change?
In this song,
pronouns help to make for a better read & listening experience. Rather than the singer's say their individual names, Bastille uses "I" to shorten it.
In a way, to me,
this makes the song read better & make more sense.
I also think the use of pronouns, in a way,
helps make it easier for individuals to better connect & identify with the song; hence
, why we 'connect' with it and like it.
Lesson 6: Indefinite Pronouns as Antecedents
Daily Objective: Continue to understand pronoun agreement & how indefinite pronouns can serve as antecedents.
It's important to make sure pronouns agree in number with indefinites.
It's not always obvious!
Refer to this chart to help you:
Singular Indefinite Pronouns:
Ex:
Each
of the instruments has
its
on special sound.



Each
of the stores had
its
own entrance.
Singular personal pronoun to refer to a singular indefinite pronoun
Singular Indefinite Pronoun
Singular Personal Pronoun
'His or her' is considered a singular personal pronoun.
Ex:
Everyone
brought
his or her
clarinet.
refers to
One or more nouns may come between a personal pronoun & its indefinite antecedent.
Make sure the pronoun agrees with the indefinite pronoun, NOT the noun!
Ex:
One
of the
musicians
played their trumpet off key.


One
of the musicians played
her
trumpet off key.
Incorrect!
Correct!
Personal pronoun is agreeing with noun, not the indefinite! - (WRONG!)
Personal pronoun agrees with the indefinite! (Singling one out) - (RIGHT!)
Plural Indefinite Pronouns:
Ex:
Both
of the pianists played
their
own compositions.



Many
of us f0rgot
our
homework .
Plural pronoun to refer to a plural indefinite pronoun
Plural Indefinite Pronoun
Plural Personal Pronoun
refers to
Some indefinite pronouns can be singular or plural
Use the meaning of the sentence to determine whether it will be singular or plural
Ex:
Some
of the music has lost
its
appeal.
Singular or Plural Indefinites:
If Indefinite Pronoun refers to a portion of a whole, use a singular personal pronoun.
Ex:
Some
of the musicians play
their
instruments.
If Indefinite Pronoun refers to members of a group, use a Plural Personal Pronoun.
Lesson 7: Other Pronoun Problems
Daily Objective: Understand how pronouns may be used with an appositive, in an appositive, or in a comparison.
Appositive:
a noun or pronoun (often with modifiers) set beside another noun or pronoun to explain or identify it.
Pronouns and Appositives:
Ex:
We
pianists will have to rent pianos.


The conductor pointed toward
us
violinists.
The pronoun
we
or
us
is sometimes followed by an appositive

Appositive
Appositive
We
the
people
The
sopranos, Eva and I

Your
friend Bill
The
President, Barack Obama
We
Ex:
We
pianists will have to rent pianos.


We
Americans cherish our freedom.
Used when referring to the subject of a sentence
Us
Ex: Our company flew
us
to Chicago for a conference.

Please send
us
a copy of the letter by Monday.

The birthday presents were from
us
.
Used when referring to the direct object, indirect object, or object of the preposition
Direct Object
Indirect Object
OOP
Pronouns with Appositives
Ex: The oboe players are having lunch with
(we, us)
cellists.
Drop the appositive from the sentence
The oboe players are having lunch with
(we, us)
.
Determine function of pronoun. Here, it's an OOP.

Write the sentence using the correct case.
The oboe players are having lunch
with us
cellists.
Pronouns in Appositives
Ex: Holly sang for the two tenors, Marcello and
(he, him)
.
Rewrite the sentence with the appositive by itself
Holly sang for Marcello and
(he, him)
.
Try each part of appositive alone with the verb.
Holly sang for Marcello.

Holly sang for
(he, him)
.
Write the sentence using the correct case.
Nominative/Subjects:
Objective/Objects (DO, IO, OOP):
I, You, He, She, It We, They
Who
We

Pronouns in Comparisons:
Sometimes a pronoun is used in an appositive...
Appositive helps to identify noun in front
Ex: The sopranos,
Eva and I
, sang a duet.

Our two leaders,
Lila and (him, he),
will speak
at the next city council meeting.
Ex: Our two leaders,
Lila and (him, he),
will speak
at the next city council meeting.

Our two leaders, Lila and
(him, he)
will speak
at the next city council meeting.

Lila will speak at the next city council meeting.
(Him/He)
will speak at the next city council meeting.
Comparisons can be made by using "than" or "as"


Elliptical:
when words are left out of a clause


Fill in missing words from an elliptical to help you choose the pronoun
Lily has more CDs
than she has
.
Lily has more CDs
than she.
You can play as well as
(he, him). [can play].

You can play as well as
he
.
Lesson 8: Pronoun Reference
Daily Objective: If an antecedent is missing or unclear, or if there is more than one, readers might be confused.
Simply put...
Make sure they pronouns and antecedents agree and are clear!

Possessive:
Me, You, Him, Her, It, Them
Whom
Us
My, Mine
Your, Yours
His, Her, Hers, Its
Our, Ours
Their, Theirs
Indefinites:
Prepositions:
To Review:
Lessons 1 & 2: Nominative & Objective
The finalists in the photography contest are Hank and
(she, her)
.

Hank is a finalist in the photography contest.
(She/Her)
is a finalist in the photography contest.


After dinner
(we, us)
all watched the news.


The noise from the construction next door gave Joan and
(I, me)
headaches.
Lesson 3: Possessive
Julie and Roy
asked me to pick up
their
score sheets.

His traveling
has given Tim greater understanding.
Lesson 4: Who/Whom
James Baldwin is a writer
(who, whom)
really makes me think.

(Who, Whom)
has Hannah appointed recording secretary?

Beside
(who, whom)
will Kyle sit in class?
Full transcript