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Personality Disorders

Personality Disorders Slideshow for Spring 2013 PSY 2500 (David Lawrence) Lecture
by

Jackson Peebles

on 8 May 2013

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Transcript of Personality Disorders

Personality Disorders WMU PSY 2500, Spring 2013
Jackson Peebles According to the DSM-IV-TR, Personality Disorders are
enduring patterns of perceiving
relating to and thinking about
the environment and oneself that are exhibited in a wide range of social and personal contexts. Are also:
Inflexible and maladaptive
Cause significant functional impairment or subjective distress (Remember the definition of a disorder!) Distinct Axis (Axis II): A distinct group
Do not come and go - originate in childhood and continue throughout adulthood
Pervasive in every aspect of one's life
May or may not distress the individual (impairment, instead?)
Tend to do poorly in treatment (proclivity) (Persistent, Pervasive Proclivities) Debate:
Are these extreme variations of normal personality disorders?
Are they ways of relating that are different from psychologically healthy behavior? Dimensional Model Dimensions vs. Categories:
Dimensions: extreme versions of otherwise normal personality variations (continuum)
Categories: ways of relating that are different from psychologically healthy behavior Clusters A B C Odd/eccentric Dramatic, emotional, or erratic Anxious or fearful Most personality disorders, regardless of cluster, are related to the hippocampus, amygdala, or another part of the temporal lobe. All share common features that resemble some of the psychotic symptoms seen in schizophrenia... Paranoid Personality Disorder:
Defining characteristic is a pervasive, unjustified mistrust and suspiciousness of others
Suspects without basis that others are out to harm/deceive themReads hidden demeaning or threatening meanings into benign remarks/events Schizoid Personality Disorder:
Show a pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a limited range of emotions in interpersonal situations. Criterion:
Neither desire nor enjoy closeness with others
Appears indifferent to the praise or criticism of others
Emotional coldness, detachment, or flattened affect Schizotypal Personality Disorder:
Socially isolated and express little emotion, but also experience perceptual distortions and behave in an eccentric manner. Criterion:
Odd beliefs and magical thinking that influences behavior
Unusual perceptual experiences
Odd thinking and speech Antisocial Personality Disorder:
Correlated with Conduct Disorder and other early behavior problems
Families with inconsistent parental discipline and support
Families often have a history of criminal and violent behavior
Is this due to nature or nurture? Prevailing Neurobiological Theories:
Underarousal hypothesis
Cortical arousal is too low
Seeking stimulation to boost arousal
Do extreme things to get the same arousal/positive reinforcement we get from smaller things
Fearlessness hypothesis
Fail to respond to danger cues
Things that frighten most of us have little or no effect on them Treatment:
Few seek treatment on their own
Antisocial behavior is predictive of poor prognosis
Emphasis is placed on prevention and rehabilitation
Often incarceration is the only viable alternative Borderline Personality Disorder (My Specialty!):
Overview and clinical features
Unstable moods and relationships
Impulsivity, fear of abandonment, very poor self-image
Self-mutilation and suicidal gestures
Comorbidity rates are high
Example criteria:
Unstable relationships—alternating between extremes of idealization and devaluation/anger
Impulsivity in areas that are self-damaging
Recurrent suicidal and/or self-mutilative behaviors
Intense emotions—unstable and reactive mood Treatment:
Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT)
Involves helping people cope with stressors
Teaches how to identify and regulate their emotions
Problem solving emphasized
Strong focus on preventing/coping with self-injury and suicidal ideation Histrionic Personality Disorder:
Excessive emotionality and attention-seeking
Example criteria:
Uncomfortable in situations when not center of attention
Overly dramatic: expresses emotions in an exaggerated fashion
Considers relationships to be more intimate than they actually are Narcissistic Personality Disorder:
Pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy
Example criteria:
Grandiose sense of self-importance
Requires excessive admiration
Lacks empathy and compassion for others
Often envious of others
Often fail to live up to their own expectations and are often depressed These disorders share common features with anxiety disorders Avoidant Personality Disorder:
Social inhibition because of feelings of inadequacy and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation or fear of rejection
Example Criteria:
Preoccupied with being criticized or rejected—and feels constantly rejected by others
Views self as socially inept, personally unappealing, or inferior to others Dependant Personality Disorder:
Pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation
Example criteria:
Needs others to resume responsibility for areas of his/her life
Goes to excessive lengths to obtain nurturance and support from others
Unreasonable fears of abandonment Treatment:
Social skills training
Exposure to situations that may produce anxiety
Challenge “anxious” thoughts (Thought Record)
What’s the likelihood?
Competing, more rational, thought Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder:
Pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control, at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency
Example criteria:
Preoccupied with details, rules, lists, etc.
Perfectionism that interferes with task completion
Excessively devoted to productivity to the exclusion of leisure activities
Over-conscientious, scrupulous, and inflexible about morality, ethics, or values
Distantly related to OCD; BUT different disorder
Don’t have the specific obsessive thoughts and compulsions
Full transcript