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Transcript of Cancer
Ana María Rodríguez
Sarah Marti Gray
Ouyan Zhang Hu
WHAT IS CANCER?
Cancer is not one disease, but the name for a group of very similar diseases. There are over 200 types of cancer, and whilst each type of cancer has many similarities, it will differ depending upon where in the body the cancer is. All cancers start because abnormal cells grow out of control. Untreated cancers can cause serious illness and death.
The Top 5 Types of Cancer that Cause the Most Deaths Worldwide
Global Cancer Rates
The 10 worst countries and the UK cancer rate, per 100,000 of the population.
Spain 241.4 309.9 187
Small cell carcinoma
Non-small cell lung cancer
Oat cell carcinoma
20% of lung cancers
Cigarette smoking- 1% non-smokers
Usually starts in one of the larger breathing tubes
Great expansion when detected
Most common of NSCLC in the U.S.
Outer or peripheral areas of lungs
Grows relatively slowly.
Living in an area with high levels of air pollution.
Living in an area with high levels of arsenic in the drinking water.
Exposure to carcinogens (chemicals: Gasoline, Beryllium, Uranium…).
Having a family history of lung cancer.
in the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the lung. Normal lung tissue is made up of cells that are programmed by nature to create lungs of a certain shape and function.
Chest pain, back pain,shoulder pain.
Coughing up blood
There may be also other symptoms which are not related to the lungs such as headaches, weakness, pain, bone fractures, bleeding or blood clots.
Famous people who have died of lung cancer
cancer found in one side of the chest, just one lung and nearby lymph nodes.
cancer spread out form the chest, to other parts of the body.
Chemotherapy + drugs
-Chest radiation: limited stage
-Brain radiation: both
beneficial less than 5% of patients
Frequently developed at several sites of the lungs and spread out through preexisting alveolar walls
Squamous cell carcinomas
Previously they used to be more common than adenocarcinomas
30% of NSCLC
Central chest area (bronchi)
Large cell carcinomas
Least common type of NSCLC
Large round cells
Outer regions of the lungs
Can grow and expand more rapidly than other NSCLC
80-85% lung cancers
Each type of non-small cell lung cancer has different kinds of cancer cells. The cancer cells of each type grow and spread in different ways.
- Squamous cell carcinoma
- Large cell carcinoma
can increase the risk of non-small cell lung cancer:
- Smoking cigarettes, pipes, or cigars, now or in the past.
- Being exposed to second-hand smoke.
- Being treated with radiation therapy to the breast or chest.
- Being exposed to asbestos, radon, chromium, nickel, arsenic, soot, or tar.
- Living where there is air pollution.
If there were no cigarettes lung cancer would be considered a rare disease.
"A 15 percent of smokers develop lung cancer, and far from what many people believe, the use of" light "cigarettes does not reduce the risk of suffer it," said Dr. José Miguel Sánchez Torres, MD Medical Oncologist from Anderson Cancer Center in Madrid.
Treatment for cancer patients is blown through a tube, the smoke from "divine cigarettes" that have "nanotechnology" in them is capable of removing cancer.
The smoke from the "divine cigarrettes" is blown into the patient through the mouth, nose and ears.
Dr. Gretha Zahar
- Comes from the Greek word "Karkinos", which means crab.
lungs, not spread to any lymph nodes.
lungs and nearby lymph nodes.
lung, lymph nodes, middle of the chest.
Stage IIIA: only in lymph nodes in one the side of the chest it started.
Stage IIB: lymph nodes on the opposite side of chest or collarbone.
Stage IV: most advanced (advanced disease). Both lungs, around them or other organs (liver).
Wedge or segment removal
chemotherapy before radiation or surgery.
+ chemotherapy: no surgery
slow symptoms: breathing problems and swelling
slow pain when the cancer has spread to the bones
Treatments mostly used
cause of cancer
in both men and women in the U.S. and
is the principal risk factor for development of lung cancer.
to tobacco smoke also can cause lung cancer.
The general prognosis of lung cancer is poor, with overall survival rates of about
at five years.
of lung cancers are caught at an early stage. When it has spread to other organs, the survival rate drops to
New developments in cancer treatment
A scientist from the University o Salamanca, Eva Martín, has designed a type of microcapsules to increase the effectivity of the therapies against lung cancer, specially chemotherapy. These microcapsules are able to make the treatment be applied selectively to the infected cells.
Application that measures the radiation the user is exposed to