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My Badminton Analysis
Transcript of My Badminton Analysis
Biomechanics is the science of movement of a living body, including how muscles, bones, tendons and ligaments work together to produce movements.(i)
Sport biomechanics is the science of enhancing a particular technique and to improve performance in a competitive situation as well as guiding athletes and competitors to more productive training.
The purpose is to evaluate motion of a human being in sport training. It is a discipline that applies the laws of mechanics and physics to study internal and external bodily movements and the causes of movements.(ii)
Therefore it is essential to understand the basic biomechanical principles of badminton, to perform at a desired performance.
Badminton in particularly can relate to not only biomechanical principles, but to Newtons laws of motion in many different aspect of the game.
According to Newton’s first law, an object will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion continues in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.(iii)
This law of motion is referred to as the law of inertia. In badminton this law is evident in breaking the inertia of the shuttle cock, whereby changing its direction.
According to Newton's second law, acceleration is produced when a force act on a mass; the greater the mass (of the object being accelerated) the great the amount of force need (to accelerate the object).(iv)
This law can also be expressed in a simple equation, as shown in figure 1 where force equals mass times acceleration.
The overhead clear is only one example of a basic shot in the game of badminton, which quite clearly is the clearing of the shuttle into the back court by using an overhead clear. It is essentially a defensive shot, however can also be used in an attacking mode if the trajectory or course of the shuttle cock is flatter which forces the opponents to one of the back corners of the court.
The preparation stage primarily consists of the mental set in which the athlete prepares mentally for the skill he/she is about to perform.(vii)
The preparation phase; the placement of my body and feet facing the side of the court allowing my body shape to set up for an overhead clear. Body shape is facing side on, increasing the force production for twisting action in my hips, upper body and arm in the next phase. This also allows to either, move forward or backwards, depending on the serve. This gives more opportunity to execute maximum force in my overhead clear.
This next phase allows the force and momentum to be produced, and the storing of elastic potential energy to then convert it to kinetic energy. During this phase my body weight is shifted from my front foot to the rear foot, which enables the use of ground reaction forces. The force is now expelled through the legs; the larger muscle group first. The rotation of my core is allowing more force to be summated through to my arms. Bending of the legs than pushing off through the ground is also absorbing momentum for an upward direction and bringing my upper arm upwards still bent at the elbow is also creating more force. This again will enable a greater force to be executed. The action of my arms; the racquet and non-racquet arm is an example of Newton's third law of motion:
'For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction'.
The action of my right arm, balances that of my left so that my hitting arm does not initiate unwanted momentum. This will allow for a more precision and faster shot.
As show in the picture, this next stage is the hitting stage, whereby the generated force is expelled through the hitting of the shuttle cock. The force has now passed through my body via the sequential body movements of the hips, upper body, upper arm and now through my forearm and into the wrist for a flick action. As my body is compromised of a series of segments which form third class lever system; my non hitting arm to form a short lever, has swung behind to cause my hitting arm to fully extend, creating the longer possible lever, also allowing greater force. my hitting arm has now changed from the short lever to the long lever to gain optimal force.
All weight has been thrown from my back foot to the front foot and, my hips are now completely rotated facing forward. This movement assists my overhead clear shot by reaching optimum force through the momentum in my body movement and via the extension of my attacking arm.
The final stage is the follow through, starting with the following through from my hit, resulting in more force in my shot, through the summation of my body. My left shoulder pointed forward and my head is focused and balanced on the direction of the shuttle. All the energy and force from the rotation of my torso brings my left leg forward, forcing me forward. This is due to Newton’s first law of motion, whereby, I am continuing moving forward until acted upon by an unbalanced force. This unbalanced force is when my left foot makes contact with the ground, causing me to stop. This is an important stage because, while my body is front on, i am able to set up for my next play.
The greater the force can be applied to the shuttle cock, the greater the acceleration of the shuttle cock.
By using correct force summation, large forces can be generated that will be passed onto the shuttle cock.(v)
Newton’s third law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction which means that every force acted there is an equal reaction force acting in the opposite reaction.(vi)
Again this can be seen through the shuttle cock as if a lot of force is acted on the shuttle cock, it will react and travel a further distance and in the direction the force was applied.
Newton’s first law states that an object will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion continues in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
This law of motion is referred to as the law of inertia, and is important in badminton by breaking the inertia of the shuttle, and changing its direction of projection. A badminton player needs to understand and execute this law in order to simply hit the shuttle back over the net. I am performing this law rather well as the shuttle is evidently moving from my half to my opponents caught, without falling before the net, therefore no major recommendation are needed for this biomechanical technique.
Newtons Law of Motion
According to Newton's second law, acceleration is produced when a force act on a mass; the greater the mass (of the object being accelerated) the great the amount of force need (to accelerate the object).
Therefore the greater the force applied to the shuttle cock, the greater the acceleration of the shuttle cock. Due to the lack of force in my clear, it is evident that the shuttle would not have a great acceleration, resulting in a poor shot. In order to improve this manoeuvre, I would need to focus heavily on the speed and mass I am producing when hitting the shuttle over the net. This would create a faster projection and also forcing the player further back in the court, to allow space at the front for the execution.
Newton’s third law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction which means that every force acted there is an equal reaction force acting in the opposite direction.
Again this can be seen through the shuttle cock as if a lot of force is acted on the shuttle cock, it will react and travel a further distance and in the direction the force was applied. The acceleration of a clear at 50% intensity will accelerate half the amount of a clear at 100% intensity. Another aspect of badminton that uses Newton's third law of motion is the ground forces in the execution phase, whereby for the action of bending my knees, the force then acts in the opposite direction; forcing my body upward when hitting the shuttle over the net. Due to my legs not gaining enough momentum via not bending enough, the ground force was not as strong as desired. To improve this, I would have to simply bend my legs more to gain optimal force.
Every athlete must be able to maintain balance and stability. Athletes’ loss of stability can have an adverse effect on their ability to perform the skills of the given sport with control. A loss of control can affect factors such as force production and accuracy.
The two types of balance are:
• static balance, which is balance when the body is at rest (not moving)
• dynamic balance, which is balance when the body is moving.
Therefore the wider the base support, the greater the stability and if the base support is smaller than the breadth of their shoulders, the player is likely to lose more balance, which can affect the overall shot.(vii)
Centre of gravity is a biomechanical element which is imperative to the success of an overhead clear.
Centre of gravity is a point in the body, which is pivotal in the balance of an individual. At that point, perfect balance can be achieved without any need to change posture or rotate to keep it in balance.(ix)
It is necessary in badminton to keep the centre of gravity as low as possible to create an optimal shot and enable the best performance possible. If there was an absence of adequate balance, stability or centre of gravity, the overall force of the overhead clear would be of a lesser value. In comparison, my balance and stability is dissimilar to that of an elite standard. However my starting posture of legs apart - my body facing to the left - allows me to maintain a centre of gravity.
This is one similarity to that of a professional athlete. The large step towards the target, just before I hit the shuttle cock, is also an ideal manoeuvre that increases the size of the base of support meaning that I execute the shot, the centre of gravity remains within the base of support, keeping me stable and balanced throughout. To improve future performance, I would need to adapt the way in which the centre of gravity is placed throughout each movement. As the stroke progresses, balance must move from the centre of my body, through to my back leg. Currently, I am not executing this. To enhance my performance and stability, I would also take a more crouching stance to lower my centre of gravity and avoid lifting my arms unnecessarily above head level; raising the centre of gravity.
Summation of Forces
To obtain maximum force, it is necessary to combine or add up the forces applied by different body parts; this concept is known as the summation of forces and is necessary for an athlete to reach an ideal standard of force production.
Summation of forces is influenced by several factors; including the number of body parts used, the order or timing of the movement, force and velocity generated and the way in which our body parts are stabilised and balanced.(x)
The force summation is required due to the stages involved when generating the power for the clear, starting from the core of your body and eventually finishing with the flick of the wrist.
The larger muscles are used to generate the force and therefore the smaller muscles are used for direction.(xi)
The greater the force can be applied to the shuttle cock, the greater the acceleration of the shuttle cock, therefore by utilising the summation of forces correctly (timing sequencing, body segments, stretch and range of motion). Resulting in larger forces being generated, that will be passed onto the shuttle cock while executing the overhead clear.
Analysing my technique of utilising the summation of forces in my overhead clear, it is evident that I am not bending my knees at the correct order or timing and therefore causing the rest of my force summation out of time. This results in my legs not building up enough force to break the inertia of the shuttle cock, and therefore resulting in a slower shot than required. As my legs are not gaining a large amount of force; I am not bending my knees at a correct time in correspondence to the rest of my body and this results in my other body parts included in this overhead clear to also not receive enough force to hit the shuttle with maximal force. To improve my technique, changes to my timing of summating force needs to be applied mainly with bending my larger leg muscles.
Once I effectively time the bending on my knees, I will be able to exert greater force into the rotation of my core, increasing the speed and power my upper body. I am rotating my core but not at a desired rate to build up enough force. But through the sub routine as well as a comparison to the video, I can see that the order through my rotation and summation is correct; starting at my legs facing the side of the court then rotating my core to face the front net, bringing my upper arm then forearm to make contact with the racket. I am ending with a simple but effective flick of the wrist to increase the speed of the shuttle, then carrying the force through my whole body, which in that case forces me forward. This applies the force at the correct time and rate to break the inertia of the shuttle, and also overall
allowing for the greatest possible range of motion, for the greater force to be generated.(xii)
LEVERS AND PROJECTILES
Levers are used in our everyday lives. Scissors, wheel burrows and nail clippers are all examples of levers; however they can only work because of levers. Not only wheel burrows, but levers are used in many sports and for sport equipment, such as racquets, used in badminton to hit the shuttle cock faster and further. Our arms and legs are examples of levers within in the human body, and allow the body to move and generate force.
Levers have a point at which force is applied, a point of resistance and a fulcrum (axis) which all work slightly different but play a role in sport and physical activity.(xiii)
First class levers have a fulcrum in-between the force and the resistance; second class have a short resistance arm and a long effort arm and the third class levers have long resistance arms and short effort arms. For example, in badminton, a long lever creates greater force and velocity, therefore to increase the speed of a shuttle cock, it would be ideal to have a longer effort arm (bringing the arm further back) then not allowing the effort arm to go further than the resistance arm. These levers can be manipulated to improve speed and apply large forces to an object at the same time. The generation of force through solely the racquet and the shuttle is low, as they have little mass, therefore allowing a badminton player to swing with a great velocity and power and still hit the shuttle within the court.
It was identified that the more effective use of first class levers and projectile motion, a badminton player is able to execute an effective overhead clear. In saying this, the projection of the shuttle is influenced by the principles that govern projectile motion - gravity, air resistance, speed, height, and angle of release.
The height of release is important when propelling an object anywhere higher than ground level. If an object, such as the badminton, the angle needs to be greater than 45 degrees.(xiv)
In contrast to that, I have decided there must be a great technical fault with my overhead clear as it lacks the power to project the shuttle high and deep, even when I execute the attempt as hard and as fast as I can. I have identified the technical fault in my clear, beginning in my back swing, as my elbow is below the racquet. '
Several credible badminton videos teach that one must have their elbow bent above the racquet before fully extending the arm up to hit the shuttle.'
My arm does not fully extend and this where the principle of levers should be applied.
A long arm lever results in greater height over the net, which also produces greater velocity and ultimately increase the force transferred to the shuttle. By correctly applying the rule of levers I can dramatically improve my overhead clear. I need to be able to increase my levers in my arms to produce a force of a desired performance, and also projecting the shuttle at a 45 degree angle.
A more powerful and efficient shot is very beneficial as it will push the opposing player further into the back court opening up the front of the court. This sets up the player for an attacking shot such as a smash or a drop shot potentially causing the player to win the point. In conclusion this task has helped and benefited me as a badminton player allowing me to see my flaws that are restricting my performance as a badminton player. Through the studies of Newtons Laws of Motion, and the biomechanical principles behind the overhead clear, I believe that I will be able to tweak my performance to create a much more powerful and effective shot similar to those of an elite player. The principles needed to achieve automotive level of performance are force, motion, projectile motion, flight path, balance, stability and levers. Once these were applied to my performance the effectively has maximised my ability.