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HSC CORE 1- CANCER
Transcript of HSC CORE 1- CANCER
FOCUS QUESTION 2-
What are the priority issues for Improving Australia's health?
IMPROVED CHANCE OF SURVIVAL
HOWEVER, INCIDENCE FOR MANY TYPES OF CANCER IS STILL ON THE INCREASE:(
The nature of cancer
Uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal body cells
As these cells multiply, they form tumors
Benign tumors- grow slowly and surrounded by a capsule that inhibits spread to other body areas
Malignant tumors are not bound by a capsule and therefore spread in an uncontrolled manner
Metastases are secondary or new tumours
Medical experts suggest that around 90 % of cancers are products of an individual's:
Carcinogens are agents that are known to cause cancer
Examples include chemicals, pollution, radiation, cigarette smoke, dietary factors and alcohol
Extent of cancer
The prevalence of cancer in the Australian population is increasing. At current estimates, one in three males and one in four females will develop cancer before the age of 85
Cancer is the only major cause of death in Australia that is increasing in incidence in both sexes
The most frequently occurring life-threatening cancers include:
•prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer and melanoma in men
•breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer and melanoma in women
Cancer accounted for 28 per cent of all deaths in Australia in 2004 — 31.3 per cent of male deaths and 25.9 per cent of female deaths
Leading cause of cancer deaths in Australia
10 times greater risk among smokers
> 10 % of all cases of lung cancer occur in non-smokers
Most common cause of cancer death in women and risk increases with:
high fat diet and obesity
early menarch and late menopause
late first pregnancy and not having children
early detection vital
Australian rates highest in the world
Predominantly caused by prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation
Skin protection and early detection vital
fair skin that burns rather than tans
Risk factors include:
fair or red hair and blue eyes, combined with
residence in high sun exposure areas
a high number of hours of bright sunlight at place of residence
prolonged exposure to the sun, especially as a child and adolescent
the number and type of moles on the skin.
Graphs adapted from AIHW Cancer in Brief 2010