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Transcript of Japan (Yamato)
Politics After the death of the great Prince Shotoku, who made many contributions to Japanese art and language, a series of reforms were made known as the Taika. One of these changes was that all land in Japan belonged to the emperor. People needed to pay taxes in rice or cloth, or they could do physical labour by working on building sites or serving as soldiers. By the 7th century, Japan was considered a highly advanced and civilized kingdom. Before the Taika, people would move the capitol after the emperor died because they believed it was unlucky to remain in the same place afterwards. Afterwards however, they decided to follow Chinese tradition and build a permanent capitol. The city of Nara was built for this purpose in 710. At this point in history Japan was divided into provinces. The governor was required to write a report about their province to the emperor describing the animals, plants and other resources in the province. In the 8th century, however, Buddhist priests began to interfere with politics. In 784 Emperor Kammu decided to move the province. In 794 the capitol was moved to Heian-Kyo, which was later renamed Kyoto and remained the capitol until 1868. Bibliography 倭 During 300 A.D. the social class began to come about. The leader of all the clans of Japan was Uji. The leader of each Uji was both a priest and a ruler for their people. Uji had great strength throughout their military services; this included many weapons, armor and horses. This made the Uji more powerful. The Uji was traced back to Kami, Kami were believed to have divine spirits. Since their ancestors were the Kami, they were a very powerful group of families that were ranked higher than other people in the Japanese society. Until the Yamato clan came about. The Yamato clan also desist from the Kami. But, their ancestors were the Sun Goddess. Unlike the Uji, their Sun Goddess protected all people in Japan, not just the people of the clan. Eventually the Uji became loyal to the Yamato clan.
At the top of the class was the emperor who was a political leader. Then there were the Shoguns who were nobles. Under them there were the Diamyos, and Samurai who were warriors. Ronin were paid soldiers. Under them were the Peasants who made up 90% of the population, they were farmers and fishermen. Artisans were crafts people. Lastly, there were Merchants the lowest class; these people were sales people. The location of Japan has not shifted enough to have the exact location of it in ancient times. Japan is located in Eastern Asia; as well, it is part of an island chain that is between the North Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan. Japan is surrounded by many other islands. It is east of the Korean Peninsula.
In Japan the land is mostly rugged and mountainous. The climate in the north is cooler and in the south it is warm, like tropical weather. The weather varies throughout the different places within Japan. The Japanese dressed very traditionally. Bracelets and amulets were made from sells; they were very popular. They were made from the Ryukyu Islands. On these pieces of jewelry there was distinctive designs engraved on them. Later on in the Kofun period bracelets made out of stone became popular. Crossed- coma- shaped pendants too were very popular. The clothes and hair styles were used to distinguish people’s sex, profession, role and their importance among the groups. Most of the clothing was influenced by china. They would trade clothing which caused most of Japanese clothing to be the same as Chinese. A Kimono was worn by both men and women, made from silk. Men usually wore black or brown, but there were a variety of different styles for women. There were about 10 different styles that reflected age, group etc. A Yukata is a causal version of a kimono. The Nanajuban is worn under the kimono. A Haori was a loose fitting coat; only worn by men back then. Haori himo is a tie that holds the haori together; made from woven string. Hakama is a long pleated skirt; it had a total of 7 pleats. Tabi were the socks; they were worn by both men and woman. These socks have a separation between the big toe and the rest of the toes. Zori was open toes sandal. And obi is a sash. The colors were according to rank; they were knotted, and believed to keep away evil spirits. Each knot meant something different. An Obiage is a pillow to support the obi. The Obijime is a string which is tied into the knots of the obi. Lastly, they wore a Kanzashi, which is a hair piece or pin that hold women’s hair in place. In ancient Japanese times there were jobs such as...
Farmers; they grew rice crops
Jobs were life- long.
Working in building sites; building structures
Within the government.
The Japanese ate very healthy. They would eat foods such as fish, vegetables such as bok choy, soy and root vegetables. As well, they would eat edible plants and berries, fruit such as Umeboshi (pickled plums), mandarin oranges and Asian pears. Rice was grown by the people. For a drink green tea was very popular; it was first introduced to the Japanese by the Chinese. Fish was ate raw or cooked and was a very popular food, as was rice. Food: Kofun stage had lots of art and beautiful architecture. The Kofun people would even decorate the tombs of the rich desist with paintings. They would even accompanied the bodies with burial goods–bronze mirrors, tools, weapons, personal ornaments, horse trappings, and clay vessels. Architecture saw great expansion during the Kofun stage. Buddhist sculptures were made up of wood, stone, bronze, clay and lacquer. The homes in the kofun stage saw great expansion in the Kofun stage over the years. They homes were very grand for their time. Some of the buildings even had more than one story. They were built so well that some of the built during the Kofun stage are still standing today. The storehouses or warehouses that had appeared in the earlier Yayoi period remained important architecture in the Kofun age. The buildings, villages and towns are studied today to learn about their people and what they did. The Yamato rulers were having trouble with power during this time. They saw how china ruled their country and their laws. Japan adopted a lot of their government from china. All of the land was brought to the government and give equally between all the farmers in large forms. They had a tax system that was adopted from china also. Laws began to emerge in written form in the late years of the Yamato stage. Japan took most of its culture from china from its government to its laws. Job Specialization Websites:
•Country Studies Program. “Japan- History.” Web. 30th April, 2013. <http://www.mongabay.com/reference/country_studies/japan/HISTORY.html>
Fashion and Food Websites:
•Buzzle Inc. “Japanese Traditional Clothing.” 2000-2012, 2013. Web. 29th April, 2013. <http://www.buzzle.com/articles/japanese-traditional-clothing.html>
•Kawagoe, Aileen and Heritage of Japan. “Kofun period people sought after shell bracelets and amulets from the southern islands.” 2003- 2013. Web. 29th April, 2013. <http://heritageofjapan.wordpress.com/following-the-trail-of-tumuli/rebellion-in-kyushu-and-the-rise-of-royal-estates/kofun-period-people-sought-after-shell-bracelets-and-amulets-from-the-southern-islands/>
•Cummings, Tucker. “The History of Japanese Medieval Food.” 1999-2013. Web. 29th April, 2013. <http://www.ehow.com/about_5370714_history-japanese-medieval-food.html>
•Brant, John. "The Class Divisions of Ancient Japan." Helium. Helium, 02 May 2010. Web. 29 Apr. 2013.< http://www.helium.com/items/1821548-class-divisions-of-ancient-japan>
• Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike. Hierarchical structure of Feudal Japan. 23rd January, 2010. The Full Wiki. Web. 23rd April, 2013. < http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/07/3/6/1/02142151631015165.gif>
Location and Environment:
•"Geography and Map of Japan." Geography and Map of Japan. N.P., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. <http://geography.about.com/library/cia/blcjapan.htm>
•"JapaneseHistory.info." JapaneseHistory.info. N.P., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. <http://japanesehistory.info/prehistory.htm>
•Start Counter. The Kofun or Yamoto Period 250 - 500 A. Japanese History.info. Web. 30th April, 2013. <http://japanesehistory.info/prehistory.htm> Japan had many religions throughout its history. Some were indigenous, some were imported, and some were a combination. For the Kofun period and the first part of the Asuka period, the majority of people followed the “Shinto” religion in which people worship the “kami” which they believe brought life to the earth and the human race. Around the 6th century however, Buddhism was introduced to Japan and influenced the Shinto religion. This is the primary difference between the Kofun and Asuka periods of Japanese history: The Kofun period primarily focused on Shinto religion and the Asuka period primarily worshiped Buddhism. At first, the Japanese people simply used the Chinese language to communicate. After about the 6th century A.D., however, Japanese scholars began experimenting with the Chinese language, and attempted to represent their own language. In Chinese, each symbol represents a one syllable word with a specific pronunciation and meaning. For example, the word “mao” means hair or fur. The word mao also has its own specific symbol. These symbols are used in series to create sentences. When Japanese began to experiment with the language, the would either change the meaning of the symbol (so the symbol that represents mao or hair in Chinese may no longer have the same meaning in Japanese) or they would change the pronunciation of the symbol (so the symbol that means hair may be the same in Chinese but would be no longer pronounced mao in Japanese.) This was the beginning of the Japanese language used today. As you can see in the diagram above, some of the influence of the Chinese language still remains, as the symbol for the word meaning “many” remains the same. Japanese script was written on scrolls with ink pens. They also learned how to make paper from the Chinese. Work citied
"Bust of a warrior [Kanto region, Japan] (1975.268.414)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/1975.268.414 (October 2006)
Http:www.megalithic.co.uk/modules.php?op=modload&name=a312&file=index&do=showpic&pid=40973. 2008. Photograph. The Megalithic Portal. N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. Print.
N.d. Photograph. House of Japan. Japanese Architecture In The Prehistoric Period, 20 Dec. 2012. Web. 2 May 2013. <http://www.houseofjapan.com/architecture/japanese-architecture-in-the-prehistoric-period>.
"PUAM - Asian Art Collection." PUAM - Asian Art Collection. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 May 2013. <http://etcweb.princeton.edu/asianart/timeperiod_japan.jsp?ctry=Japan>.
"?zuka Kofun - Rock Art in Japan in Ky?sh?." The Megalithic Portal. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 May 2013. <http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=19929>.
"The Kofun Period 300-710." A Timeline of Japanese History. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 May 2013. <http://www.tiger3.net/periods/Kofun.html>.
"Japan - KOFUN AND ASUKA PERIODS." Japan - KOFUN AND ASUKA PERIODS. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 May 2013. <http://countrystudies.us/japan/6.htm>.
"Kofun Period Architecture: Dwellings and Buildings diversify." Heritage of Japan. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 May 2013. <http://heritageofjapan.wordpress.com/following-the-trail-of-tumuli/rebellion-in-kyushu-and-the-rise-of-royal-estates/village-settlement-patterns-the-homestead-emerges/kofun-period-architecture-dwellings-and-buildings-diversify/>.
"Kofun Culture." Kofun Culture//. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 May 2013. <http://www.t-net.ne.jp/~keally/kofun.html>.